DNA vs. RNA
Deoxyribose Sugar vs. Ribose Sugar Backbone
Much of RNA is single stranded and attaches to itself, whereas DNA is double stranded and forms a double helix
One strand directs 3' to 5' while the other strand directs 5' to 3'. A's and T's paired up, and G's paired up with C's. The two strands are considered anti-parallel.
-The 2 strands unwind in opposite directions
-DNA Polymerase only synthesizes new strands of DNA in a 5' to 3' direction, new nucleotides are added on to the 3' end of the DNA
-DNA Replication is semi-conservative
Characteristics of Hereditary Material
-info. is coded in the base sequence
-mutations are changes in the base sequence, there are point mutations and deletions, which mutate one base pair, and cause entire frame changes respectively
Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes
-Cytoplasm Gets Made
-Parts get divided between cells
-New Cell membranes form to make new cells
Cells are unreplicated. Makes up the descrepancy of time in the cell cycle between mitosis and interphase
AKA Interphase, where chromosomes gets replicated.
Chromosome replication is completed, cells wait for division. It's gap that represents the period of time when chromosome replication is complete but mitosis hasn't begun yet
Cells divide, and cell cycle restarts in eukaryotic cells.
one side of a replicated chromosome, also known as 1 DNA molecule
2 sides of a replicated chromosome; where the genetic material is identical. It is equivalent to 2 identical DNA molecules
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
Chromosomes condense and mitotic spindles form in the cell.
Nuclear envelope begins to break down; spindle fibers connect to chromosomes.
Chromosomes line up in middle of cell.
Sister Chromatids divide and begin moving to seperate sides of the cells
spindle fibers start to disappear, nuclear membrane forms and cytoplasm begins to divide
Having 2 sets of chromosomes, (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Only having one set of chromosomes, an organism or cell having one set of chromosomes. (ex. Humans have 23 haploid chromosomes, 46 diploid cells)
used to code DNA strands
other strand of DNA that isn't used for coding, but end up having same nucleotide structure as newly formed strands of DNA
Microtubal organizing center that contains all mitotic in interphase breaks off into two centrioles in prophase. The Centrioles supply the spindle fibers for the chromosomes to stay in place
Cells become malignant & cancerous if they gain ability to detach from original tumor and invade other tissues
also known as the origin of replication where DNA synthesis begins. the unzipping occurs in both directions
Protein Synthesis Steps
Transcription, RNA Processing, and Translation
-RNA Polymerase attaches to the DNA, and begins to unwind (Initiation)
-RNA is created in the 5' to 3' direction from DNA base pairing rules (Elongation)
-RNA Transcript is released (Termination)
Occurs in eukaryotic nucli.
RNA is processed from mRNA to protein. Occurs within ribosomes in the eukaryotic cells' cytoplasm
Contains an anti-codon that forms base pairs with mRNA's codons. Amino Acids are attached to tRNA's 3' end. It has a cloverleaf shape
Primary function is to carry signals from DNA to synthesize proteins in ribosomes contained in the cytoplasm
The enzyme that catalyzes protein synthesis
Sections of mRNA that is not represented in the final process.
editors of the primary mRNA strands.
Proteins and snRNP's assemble to form spliceosomes. Introns are spliced out of primary mRNA to turn it into matured mRNA.
as soon as mRNA emerges from RNA polymerase, enzymes add a structure called 5' cap
attaches to the 3' end of the mRNA when it emerges from RNA polymerase
tRNA 3 Sites
-A-site: holds the aminoacyl tRNA; tRNA that covalently links with an amino acid
-P-site: holds the tRNA with growing polypeptide attached
-E-site: holds tRNA that will soon exit the ribosome
Aminoacyl tRNA Synthase
catalyst for addition of amino acids to tRNA. there is a different kind for each of the 20 major amino acids
aminoacyl tRNA diffuses into the A site, and its anticodon binds to a codon in mRNA
peptide bond forms between amino acids held by aminoacyl tRNA and the growing peptide that is being held in the P-site
all three ribosomes move down a position in the line. the amino acid that was just previously in the ribosome E site has just left
takes place whe one of the stop codons appears in the A site.
protein that catalyzes the hydrolisis of the bond linkage the tRNA in the P site with the polypeptide chain. is linked with termination in translation
6CO2+12H2O+Light Energy --> C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O
job is to open up DNA and get it ready for replication
Produced in electron transport chain of photosynthesis
Involves Photosystem II, Photosystem I, and the calvin cycle
-Fixation: CO2 and RuBP goes into fixation, and 3-Phosphoglycerate comes out
-Reduction: 3Phosphoglycerate, ATP, and NADPH goes in, and G3P comes out
-Regeneration: G3P and ATP go in, and RuBP comes out
CO2 and RuBP goes into fixation, and 3-Phosphoglycerate comes out
3Phosphoglycerate, ATP, and NADPH goes in, and G3P comes out
G3P and ATP go in, and RuBP comes out