Chapter 7 - Nutrition =1

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Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism:

Macronutrients

Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure:

Trace elements

An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is called a/an:

D. growth factor.

An important mineral ion of the cytochrome pigments of cellular respiration is:

iron

An important mineral ion that is a component of chloroplasts and stabilizer of membranes and ribosomes is:

D. magnesium.

6. The term phototroph refers to an organism that:

C. gets energy from sunlight.

The term autotroph refers to an organism that:

Uses CO2 for its carbon source.

The term heterotroph refers to an organism that:

Must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs

The term chemotroph refers to an organism that:

Gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds

The methanogens, producers of methane gas, require environments that:

anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2.

Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called:

saprobes

The type of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen:

C. occurs in certain bacteria.

The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called:

diffusion

Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane is called:

osmosis

The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semi-permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and use energy is called:

Active Transport

The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semi-permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called

facilitated diffusion

The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called:

Endocytosis.

When bacteria that are living in a freshwater stream moved to seawater, then what would happen?

It would shrivel.

Which of the following microorganisms would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental?

protozoa

Which of the following require the cell to use ATP?

endocytosis

Contractile vacuoles are:

used to expel excess water from cells.

Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab benchtop, on the shelf of a 37C incubator and on the shelf of a 50C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37C and 50C, slight growth out on the benchtop, and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species?

psychrophile

Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species is a/an:

C. facultative anaerobe.

A microorganism that has an optimum growth temperature of 37C but can survive short exposure to high temperatures is called a/an:

thermoduric.

An organism that grows slowly in the cold but has an optimum growth temperature of 32C is called a/an:

facultative psychrophile.

An organism with a temperature growth range of 45C to 60C would be called a/an:

thermophile.

All of the following could find a location in or on body tissues suitable for growth, except:

psychrophiles.

A microorganism that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with:

oxygen.

Which of the following choice is true in case of a microaerophile?

It requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels.

A halophile would grow best in:

Salt Lakes

The E. coli that normally live in the human large intestines and produce vitamin K that the body uses would be best termed a _____ relationship.

mutualistic

The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called the:

Generation Time

The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which the rate of multiplication equals the rate of cell death is the:

Stationary Phase

The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to their new environment, metabolizing but not growing is the:

Lag Phase

In the viable plate count method, a measured sample of a culture is evenly spread across an agar surface and incubated. Each _____ represents one _____ from the sample.

Colony, cell

The majority of organisms live or grow in habitats between:

pH6 and 8

An organism that grows best at a higher CO2 tension than is normally present in the atmosphere is a(n):

Capnophile

Barophiles are microorganisms able to tolerate:

high atmospheric pressure

Plant roots provide various growth factors for soil bacteria, and the bacteria help fertilize the plant by supplying it with minerals. This is an example of:

synergism.

The stage in a normal growth curve when cells reach the maximum rate of cell division is the:

Log Phase

The decline in growth rate during the death phase is due to all of the following, except:

the decrease in temperature of the culture.

Which of the following methods of enumerating cells is the only one to detect live cells?

viable plate count

If a culture starts out with 1 cell and after 4 hours there are 64 cells, how many generations have occurred?

6

44. You inoculate a culture into a test tube containing broth and take it out of the incubator the next day. You see the culture is growing equally throughout the broth. You conclude the culture must be:

C. facultative anaerobe.

You inoculate a culture into a test tube containing broth and take it out of the incubator the next day. You see the culture is growing at the bottom of the tube. You conclude the culture must be:

B. anaerobic.

Facultative anaerobes usually possess:

both catalase and superoxide dismutase

Most microorganisms on earth can only live and survive in habitats that are similar to human body conditions.

False

Saprobes do not need a carbon source for growth and metabolism.

False

The main reservoir of nitrogen is nitrogen gas from the earth's atmosphere.

true

Lithoautotrophs use inorganic nutrients for carbon and energy sources.

true

Facilitated diffusion and active transport require a carrier protein to mediate the movement across the plasma membrane.

True

52. Bacteria have an average generation time of 24 hours.

false

The time that it takes for a freshly inoculated agar culture to develop visible colonies is principally governed by that species generation time.

true

In a commensal relationship, the commensal benefits but the cohabitant is neither harmed nor benefited.

true

Transverse binary fission results in 4 daughter cells from 1 parent cell.

false

After binary fission, daughter cells will differ genetically.

False

A closed culture system is used to determine a population growth curve.

true

The degree of turbidity in a culture correlates to the amount of cell growth.

true

The direct cell count, using a cytometer, can quantitate viable cell numbers from a sample.

false

Organisms depending on each for survival through time is coevoluion.

true

All microbiota interactions with humans are harmful.

false

Microorganisms that live in severe habitats, such as very hot, acidic, or salty environments, are called _____.

extremophiles

Organisms called _____ live on or in the body of a host and cause some degree of harm,

parasites

When whole cells or large molecules in solution are engulfed by a cell, this endocytosis is specifically termed _____.

Phagocytosis

Mediated transport of polar molecules and ions across the plasma membrane utilizes a _____ _____ that will bind to the substance effecting a conformational change that allows movement across the membrane.

carrier protein

An organism that uses CO2 for its carbon needs would be called a/an _____.

autotroph

67. In _____ conditions, the cell wall will help prevent the cell from bursting.

turgid

The toxic superoxide ion is converted to harmless oxygen by two enzymes: _____ and _____.

superoxide dismutase; catalase

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