The last czar of the Romanov Dynasty. His family had ruled Russia for 300 years, but he was forced out of power in 1917.
The process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire.
Prejudice, hatred, and discrimination against Jews.
Pale of Settlement
A region in the western part of the Russian Empire in which Jews were forced to live.
Organized attacks against a group of people. In Russia, these were often organized against Jews.
AKA The Command System. An economic system based upon the ideas of Karl Marx in which the government owns businesses and determines what is produced based upon the needs of the government.
A council of workers and soldiers that supported communism and revolution.
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR.
Russian Communists that toppled the czar's government.
Peace, Land, and Bread
Lenin's promise to the people that he would provided them with three key things.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty between Russia and Germany that would end Russia's involvement in WWI in 1917. It resulted in Russia losing a great deal of land, including the Ukraine.
Russian Civil War
Conflict in Russian between the Red Army (the Communists) and the Whites (forces still loyal to the old czar's government).
New Economic Policy
Lenin's economy reform that re-established economic freedom in an attempt to build agriculture and industry.
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
The worlds first communist country, it was established in the 1920s after the Russian Revolution of 1917. Known as the USSR or Soviet Union for short.