Cognitive Development in infancy

23 terms by ReelBlunted

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Memory

The process by which information is initially recorded, stored, and retrieved.

Infantile Amnesia

Lack of memory for experiences that occurred prior to 3 yrs of age.

Measurement of Intelligence during infancy

Focus on behavioral attainments, which can help identify developmental delays or advances but are not strongly related to measures of adult intelligence.

Arnold Gesell

Introduced Developmental Quotient. (1946) System of overall development score that relates to performance in 4 domains. Motor skills, Language use, Adaptive behaviors, and personal social behavior.

Motor Skills

Balance and sitting

Language use

Use of spoken language.

Adaptive Behaviors

Overtness and Exploration.

Personal - Social Behavior

Feeding and dressing oneself.

Nancy Bayley (Bayley scales of infant development)

Developed in 1993. Evaluated and infants development from 2 to 42 months. Focuses on 2 areas (Mental and Motor skills)

(Bayley scales of infant development) - Mental

Senses, perception, memory, learning, problem solving, and language.

(Bayley scales of infant development) - Motor Skills

Fine and gross motor skills

Jean Piaget

Swiss psychologist (1896-1980) Created a cognitive development stage theory.

Jean Piaget's Stage theory

Described how children's ways of thinking develop as they interacted with the world around them.

Jean Piaget's Human Cognition

How people think and understand.

Cognitive Development

Infants and young children understand the world much differently than adults do, and as they play and explore, their mind learns how to think in ways that better fit with reality.

Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor, Preoperational, Concrete Operational, Formal Operational. (30% of people never reach formal operational stage.)

Sensorimotor

Birth-2yrs. The level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses. First 2yrs of life, infants know the world by touching, tasting, smelling, looking, and listening. "Knowing" to very young children amounts to what their senses tell them. Differentiates self from objects. Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally.

Preoperational

2-7 yrs. The level of human development at which individuals first use language or other symbols. Learns to use language and represent objects by images of words. Thinking is still ego-centric, has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others. Classifies objects by a single feature; ex- groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of color. Lacks abstract concepts, cannot judge size, weight, or volume.

Concrete Operational

7-11 yrs. The level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings. Can think logically about objects and events. Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size.

Formal Operational

11yrs and up. The level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critical. Can think logical about abstract propositions and test hypotheses systematically.

Assimilation

Process by which people understand their experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and a way of thinking.

Accommodation

Changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.

Circular Reactions

In Piaget's terminology, processes by which an infant learns to reproduce desired occurrences originally discovered by chance.

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