unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.
a belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and a corresponding disdain for all other groups.
explaining away outgroup members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one's own group).
the tendency to favor one's own group.
"us"-a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity.
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members. Thus "they are alike; we are diverse."
"them"-a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup.
the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race.
a negative prejudgment of a group and its individual members.
(1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race, or (2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race.
realistic group conflict theory
the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources.
(1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex, or (2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex.
social dominance orientation
a motivation to have one's group to be dominant over other social groups.
the "we" aspect of our self-concept. The part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships. Examples: "I am Australian." "I am Catholic."
a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. Unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects.
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information.
accommodating groups of individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group.
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking them as a special category of people with different properties.