used as raw materials form most organic chemical production
Which fuel contains the greatest amount of sulfur?
Which 3 fuels provide 80% of the worlds energy?
coal, oil, Natural Gas: Fossil Fuels
WHich is a relitively clean fossil fuel?
Can energy and matter be generally converted into each other
Which Of the following compounds would probably suppl the greatest amount of useful energy to humans?
A liter of gasoline
Which of the following describes the amount of energy that plants pass onto herbivores?
The Net Primary Productivity of an area
The second Law of thermodynamics relates to living organisims becuase it explains why
All living things must have a constant supply of energy in the form of food
What is not an internal cost of the automobile?
Pollution and health care costs
Which of the following items includes the others? ( Renewable resources, natural resources , manufactured capital, labor)
how is natural gas recovered and transported?
Recovered by a series of pipes fitted over a drilled hole usually near oil wells or natural gas pockets.
Transported through piping or cooled into LNG and transported by special trucks, trains, or ships
2 benefits of switching from coal to natural gas?
Envi recive benefit:
1. Reduced SO2 emissions which will reduce the levels of acid deposition
2. Reduced CO2 emissions which will reduce the levels of climate changing gases
Explain one argument that proponents of coal could use to justify their position on using coal for transportation.
Coal is safer to use. In an accident natural gas can explode, harming poeple or facilites
Where are motor vehicles banned (hunting and fishing areas)
national wilderness preservation areas
Which Envi disaster was an explosion in a nuclear reactor that spread radioactive materials over thousands of hectares
Which source can harm migratory birds?
which source produces water and electricity?
Hydrogen fuel cells
Which source relies on flowing water?
Which source converts radiant energy into heat or electricity?
Wich source uses heat or steam from deep underground?
Which is the most sustainable way to ensure sufficient energy for the future?
Reduce waste and inefficiency in electricity use and transmission
What describes the goals of the CAFE standards?
improve fuel efficiency of automobiles in the U.S
What do nuclear reactors use to absorb neutrons in the reactor core?
which of the treaties is responsible for lower levels of CFC'S production world wide ?
the capacity to do work
energy at rest (stored energy)
energy in motion
what describes the movement of energy around the earth?
convection and conduction
the transfer of heat by movement of the heated matter
the transfer of energy through matter from particle to particle
What processes drive the movement of water in the hydrosphere of the earth?
convection and conduction
what are the power units??
Watt and Horsepower
First Law of Thermodynamics
energy can neither be created nor destoryed only transfered or transformed (photosythsis)
Second Law of Thermodynamics
a significan fraction of evergy is lost as heat, when it moves from one medium to another
steamm to turbine, what energies aare being used?
kinetic to mechanical
Hwo does a generator work in an electicity producing powerplant?
the generator consists of copper wire coils and magnets, one is stationary (stator) and the other rotates (rotor). as the turbine spins, it causses the mmagnnets in the generatorr to passs oover the wire coils (or vice versa), generating a flow of electrons through the copper wire, and thus producing an alternating current that passes into electrical transmission lines
What are the three main sources for the global production of electricity?
fossil fuels 64%
renewable energy sources 19%
What fuels provide the world's energy?
fossil fuels- 80%
where is coal found
underground in seams, where there used to be large deposits of plant matter
WHat does the amoint of resource that can be extracted depend on?
The technology available and the cost of extraction
what is a proven reserve
an estimate of how much fuel can be obtained from an exploratory well
what is utilized to extract oil after the easy stuff is extracted?
Describe the impacts of drillling for oil on the ennvironment.
moderately damaging because little land is needed, however during trnasport is when the worst damages can occur
Worst envi oill disasted in the UU.S
Deep Water Hrizon Drilling Rig
rank (least to best) the different types of coal and desscribe aa bit
peat lignite (brown coal) subbituminous bittuminous (black coal) anthracite (black coal)
What is the cost of mining and remving coal frrom the eart?
it leaves hazardous slag heaps containing sulfur that can be leeched out and enter the water table
How can the by-producs of coal be removed?
through the actions of scrubbers which contain alkaline substances that percipitate out much of the sulfur dioxide
burning coal with limestone
What aare two wastes produced by coal?
fly ash and boiler residue
What is natural gas used for?
home heating and cooking, but can be burned to generate electricity.
T/F Some powerplannts are designed to switch between oil and natural gas fuelss, deependingg on the cost
T/F The engines of Car can be modified to burn Natural Gass
By products of natural gas
only produces CO2 and water no NoX or SO2 associated with coal and oil (because it has a simple molecular structure)
How llong willl oil last? natural gas? coal?
Where are the world's coal reserves concentrated?
U.S. Russia China India
Who leads the world in the creation of nuclear facilities?
China and India
what happens in a nucleaar reactor?
?238 is enriched with 3% 235 but the 235 is the one actually being split
Chernobyl and Three Mile Isle
Name 2 Saftey issued of nuclear reactorss and describe them
1. Redioactive elements: Gamma rays produced by radioactive decay can damage cells and DNA, which can cause lukemia and thyroid cancer
2. Concern's for one's saftey: people suffer from stress by concerns for their saftey resulting in NIMBY
what percentage of oour energy needs are ccurrently met using renewable sources?
What is the llargest used rrenewable resourcee used today?
biomass (wood, Charcoal, poop)
what is an ineffficient way to use biomass?
the use of gasohol (90% gas 10% ethanol)
becuase it is produced by fermenting agricultural wastes which is energy intensive
plus is releases CO2
1. produces no air pollution but does produce thermal pollution
WHat's the double ended sword of dams?
1. it changes the rate at which the river flows
2. leads to the destruction of habitats
1. as water is held behind, new habitats, in the form of wetlands are created
an issue with dams in which as water sits behind a dam, the normal sediments the river carries gets trapped behind the dam and settle to its bottom, therefore, the sediment that was used to fertilize the flood plains around the river is not passed farther down the river
What is 3 issues that occur with dams
2. the reservoir behind it has a greater serface area therefore a higher rate of evaporation and water loss then before
3. fish that spwan normally in the river's water no longer have a place to do so.
What are fish ladders?
things dams use to let fish return upriver through a dam to spawn
Why is the development of hydropower as an alternative fuel source limited
because there is a limited number of rivers of sufficient power in the world that can be used for these purposes
What do solar panels do?
absorb solar eneryg and pass the energy on to tubes in which water is circulating
What is direct collection of solar energy? describe
Photovoltaic cells, which produces elecrticity that is stored in a battery.
works by electrons are energized and can flow freely, producing an electrical current
two ways of using solar energy
regional electric grid
(if not connected) stored in abtteries for llater use )
When was wind energy first used?
What is the base of a windmill called?
What are the crack that geothermal heat escapes frrom called?
geysers, hydrothermal vents or hot springs
How does goethermal heat produce electricity??
by using the naturally heated water, and converting it into steam
Where is Geothermmal heat most heavily used?
Why is Geothermal heat a limited source of energy?
Because if the ground water is used faster then it can be replaced then is source is limited and only a few areas have geothermal sources to tap into
What are some cons of geothermal heat?
1. salts that are dissolved in the water corrode machinery parts
2. some gases that are trapped in the water may be releeased when the water is utilized
How can ocean tides be used for energy?
dams must be errected to harness the energy of the tides
or a protocol desgin called LIMPET ( land installed marine powered energy transformer) may be used (Scotland)
Describe how energy would be harvested throuugh hydrogen cells.
through a process of electrolysis to release the Hyrdrogen from water and then producing the electricity through a process of reverse electrolysis
reducing our use of fossil fuels and practicing sustainability (less impact we have on producing energy)
Fuels that can be used in cars that you didnt know from before. pollution?
CO2 and water vapor
What happens when a car is retorfitted with a natural gas fuel tank?
can use wither gasoline or methane fuel
energy input is
always equal to energy output
What is the ratio of nonrenewable sources to renewable sources in developed countries today?
80% : 20%
what can uranium be used for?
nuclear weapons and to generate electricity (fission)
arrange the following energy sources in order in relation to their deisovery and use by human kind
wind and water power
biomass- neaderthals heat food
animal power- donkey
wind and water power- power mill