Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissue

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Human Anatomy and Physiology Eighth Edition

Axial Skeleton

80 bones

Axial Skeleton

made up of Skull, veterbral column, ribs, and hyoid bone

Appendicular Skeleton

126 bones

Appendicular skeleton

upper limbs, lower limbs, pectoral gid=rdle, pelvic girdle

Tuberosity

large rounded projections

Crest

narrow ridge of bone prominent

Line

narrow ridge of bone less bone prominent

Trochanter

large irregular projection

Tubercle

small rounded projection

Epicondyle

raised area bove a condyle

Spine

sharp slender projection

Head

expansion from a neck

Facet

nearly flat articulating surface

Condyle

rounded articular projection

Ramus

arm like projection

Meatus

canal

Sinus

cavity

Fossa

basin like depression

Groove

furrow

Fissure

slit in a bone

Foramen

hole

7 markings associated with muscle attachment

Tuberosity, Crest, line, Trochanter, Tubercle, Epicondyle, Spine

4 markings associated with forming joints

Head, Facet, Condyle, Ramus

6 passageways for blood vessels and nerves

Meatus, Sinus, Fossa, Groove, Fissure, Foramen

Three types of vertebrae

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Saccrum, and Coccyx

Cervical Vertebrae

7 vertebrae

Atlas

C1 responsible for up and down

Axis

C2 responsible for left and right movement

Saccrum

5 fused vertebrae

Coccyx

4 fused vertebrae

Pectoral Girdle

clavicle and scapula

Pelvic Girdle

3 bones fused together ilium, ischium, and pubis

Three types of skeletal cartilage

elastic, hyaline, and fibrocartilage

Hyaline Cartilage

joint cartilage

Elastic cartilage

cartilage in ears

Fibrocartilage

intervertebral discs and pubis symphysis

Articulations

joints

Osseous Tissue

bones

Osteocyte

mature osteoblasts

Compact bone

dense bone

Cancellous bone

spongy bone

Osteon

basic unit of bone

perforating canals

have blood vessels that carry blood to haversion canals

Lamellae

holes filled with red bone marrow

Red bone marrow

stem cells of blood, makes all blood vessels

Trabeculla

pattern of lamella in cancellous bone

Chondrocytes

forms cartilage

Function of skeletal System

Support, protection, assist in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood production site, energy storage

Epiphyseal plate

where bone grows as growth stops it becomes a line

Intramembranous Ossification

makes flat bones

Steps of intramembranous ossification

mesenchyme lays down in the shape of a bone, mesenchyme slowly gets replaced with loose connective tissue, osteoblasts move in and turn into bone, osteoclasts move in and make cancellous bone

Endochronal Ossification

forms long bones

Steps of Endochronal Ossification

hyaline cartilage is layed down, primary ossification, calcification, secondary ossification, completion of ossification

Primary Ossification

osteoblasts move in and begin to form bony collar

Cavitation

Formation of a cavity or hole

Secondary Ossification

forms the epiphysis

Steps of repairing of fractures

hematoma forms, Fibrocartilaginous callous forms, Bony callous formation, remodeling

hematoma

clot

Fibrocartilaginous callous formation

forms wherever blood clot is

Bony callous formation

osteoclasts move in and turn fibroblasts into bone

Remodeling

breakdown extra bone

Bone classifications

Long bones, Short bones, Irregular bones, Sutural bones, Sesamoid bones

Long bones

bones that are longer that wide and has epiphyseal plate at each end

Short bones

approximately same length and width has no epiphyseal plate

Flat bones

depth is thin

Irregular bone

any other type of bone

Sutural bone

bones in the suture

Sesamoid bone

bones imbedded in the tendon ex. tendon

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