any system - human, animal or machine - that encodes, stores and retrieves information.
information processing model
a cognitive understanding of memory, emphasizing how information is changed when it is encoded, stored, and retrieved
the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning
the retention of encoded information over time
The process of getting information out of memory storage.
the ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure - AKA photographic memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
The second stage of memory and the most limited in capacity - it preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute without rehearsal.
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. It stores information according to meaning.
The process of grouping items to make them easier to remember
A system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
levels of processing theory
The theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed (processed). Information that is processed more deeply is more effectively memorized.
Memory of learned skills that does not require conscious recollection
The part of long-term memory where factual information is stored, such as mathematical formulas, vocabulary, and life events.
memory of personal experiences (episodes)
memory for general knowledge including facts and language
The physical changes in the brain associated with a memory. It is also known as the memory trace
the inability to form new memories because of brain trauma (example: a boxer who doesn't remember the end of the fight because he was punched in the head too much)
The process by which short-term memories are changed to long-term memories over a period of time.
the failure to remember events that occurred prior to physical trauma because of the effects of the trauma
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
stimuli that aid the recall or recognition of information stored in memory
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
encoding specificity principle
Principle stating that recall is better if the retrieval context is like the encoding context.
mood congruent memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
the inability to recall a word, while knowing that it is in memory
The impermanence of a long term memory due to the passage of time.
founded by Hermann Ebbinghaus. displays retention of information and forgetting over time. conclusions to this were that most forgetting happens right after learning something. this was modified to that forgetting doesn't occur that quickly if the subject is memorizing more meaningful material
Forgetting caused by lapses in attention
forgetting that occurs when an item in memory cannot be accessed or retrieved
when prior learning disrupts the recall of new information
when new learning disrupts the recall of previously-learned information
serial position effect
Tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be learned better than items in the middle
a memory fault that occurs when memories are retrieved but are associated with the wrong time, place, or person
the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
in memory, a tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit one's expectations
the commonly held idea that we are more consistent in out attitudes, opinions and beliefs than we actually are
a method or system for improving the memory
persistence of memory
a memory problem in which traumatic events cannot be put out of mind
method of loci
use of familiar locations as cues to recall items that have been associated with them
natural language mediators
Words associated with new information to be remembered
language acquisition device (LAD)
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
Occurs when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply. Example: "I hitted the ball."
The idea that the brain is an information-processing organ that operates, in some ways, like a computer.
mental categories for classifying events, objects, and ideas on the basis of their common features or properties
mental representations of objects and events drawn from our direct experience
a mental image or best example of a category
concepts defined by a set of rules such as dictionary definitions or mathematical formulas
levels of concepts, from most general to most specific, in which a more general level includes more specific concepts
event related potentials
brain waves shown on the EEG in response to stimulation
An organized cluster of knowledge that provides expectations about topics, events, objects, people and situations in one's life
A cluster of knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings.
very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems
mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
a faulty heuristic caused by basing an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity
strategy based on the presumption that once people or events are categorized, they share all the features of other members in that category
A faulty heuristic strategy that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled (made available) from personal experience.
A mental process that produces novel responses that contribute to the solutions of problems
The natural abilities that people possess