Management Sample Quiz 2

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Asking an employee whether he or she would use a computer software package is an attempt to determine:
A. affect
B.cognition
C. dissonance reduction
D. behavioral intetion

B. cognition

When one's attitude and required job behavior conflict, __________ may develop.
A. affect
B. attitude dissonance
C. behavioral tendency
D. cognitive dissonance

D. cognitive dissonance

A major reason why attitudes derived from direct experience are so powerful is because:
A. they become a heiristic to assist in decison making
B. they are easily accessed and are active in our cognitive processes
C. they are accessible through the left part of the brain which is more intuitive
D. of the beahvioral intention component of an attitude

D. of the beahvioral intention component of an attitude

Job satisfaction and employee performance are like to be positively related when:
A. pay is linked to attendance
B. non-pariticipative techniques are used
C. rewards are valued by employees and are tied diretly to performance
D. employee turnover is high

C. rewards are valued by employees and are tied diretly to performance

Employee loyalty toward the organization is a significant factor in:
A. job displacement
B. continuance commitment
C. affective commitment
D. employee turnover

C. affective commitment

Which statement best reflects the current state of knowledge regarding the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational performance
A. It is similar to the relationship between job satisfaction and individual performance
B. Unfortuanetly, this relationship has not been investigated
C. No relationship has been found between job satisfaction and organizational performance
D. Companies with satisfied workers have better performance than companies with dissatisfied performance,

D. Companies with satisfied workers have better performance than companies with dissatisfied performance,

The type of organizational commitment that is based on an individual's desire to remain in an organization is called:
A. intentional commitment
B. normative commitment
C. affective commitment
D. attitudinal commitment

C. affective commitment

The 3 major aspects of the source characteristic affecting persuasion include:
A. expertise, credibilty, charisma
B. credibility, charisma, attractiveness
C. expertise, charisma, attractiveness
D. expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness

D. expertise, trustworthiness, attractiveness

An enduring belief that a particular beahvior or end state of existence is preferred is known as a/an ______.
A. message
B. value
C. ethic
D. attitude

B. value

Which of the following work values is LEAST relevant to individuals?
A. honesty
B. fairness
C. concern for others
D. professionalism

B. fairness

Acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and commonly held values of the organization and socity is:
A. legal behavior
B. ethical behavior
C. cognitive behavior
D. loyal behavior

B. ethical behavior

The goals to be achieved, or the end states of existence are called:
A. instrumental values
B. terminal values
C. lifelong values
D. permanent values

B. terminal values

Persons with an internal locus of control:
A. believe that fate affects their circumstances
B. accept others controlling them
C. take personal responisbility for their situationand the consequences of their behavior
D. can easily succumb to social and peer pressure

D. can easily succumb to social and peer pressure

Low-Mach persons value:
A. loyal and personal friendships
B. the 'get it done' mentality
C. manipulation of others
D. emotional detachment

A. loyal and personal friendships

A legitimate criticism of Kohlberg's model of cognitive moral development includes:
A. individuals do not appear to go through stages
B. maturity has not been found to be related to moral development
C. the model does not take gender differences into account
D. the fact that women and men face different moral dilemmas

C. the model does not take gender differences into account

The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior is called:
A. energizing
B. goal setting
C. motivation
D. expectancy theory

C. motivation

ERG theory explains both progression need and gratification up the hierarchy and regression when people are faced with frustration.
A. true
B. false

A. true

Maslow's hierarchy of needs model begins with ____ needs and ends with _____ needs.
A. security, social
B. achievement , power
C. power, affiliation
D. physiological, self-actualization

D. physiological, self-actualization

McGregor believed that Theory X assumptions were appropriate for:
A. individuals located at the top of the organization
B. employees located at the lower level of the organization
C. individuals motivated by lower order needs
D. individuals motivated by higher order needs

C. individuals motivated by lower order needs

Persons who have a strong desire to control others are high in:
A. need for achievement
B. need for affiliation
C. need for safety and security
D. need for power

B. need for affiliation

According to Herzberg, which factors are related to job dissatisfaction?
A. motivation factors
B. hygiene factors
C. lower level needs
D. the absence of motivation factors

B. hygiene factors

Under equity theory, people are motivated when:
A. they are in equlibrium with perceptions of inputs and outcomes
B. they can see that their inputs will lead to rewards that are valued
C. they can identify that social needs are being satisfied in relation to job expressions
D. they find themselves in a situation they see as unfair

A. they are in equlibrium with perceptions of inputs and outcomes

A major difference between motivator and hygience factors, according to Herzberg, is that:
A. motivators are controlled by supervisors and hygienes are contained within the job
B. hygiene factors allow self-actualization when present whereas motivation factors can only be activated when pay and benefits are acceptable
C. hygiene factors deal with personal appearance and motivators concern negative aspects of the job environment
D. motivators deal with job characteristics that are intrinsic to the job and hygiene facotrs deal with characteristics of the work environment extrinsic to the job

D. motivators deal with job characteristics that are intrinsic to the job and hygiene facotrs deal with characteristics of the work environment extrinsic to the job

The motivation theory that holds that employee motivation is determined by the belief that a valued outcome will result from effort is:
A. called equity theory
B. goal setting theory
C. expectancy theory
D. two-factor theory

D. two-factor theory

The expectancy theory of motivation focuses on:
A. individual needs
B. social process
C. personal perceptions
D. learning

C. personal perceptions

William Ouchi's Theory Z was based on the assumption that employees involvement is the key to productivity and quality of work life.
A. true
B. false

A. true

Classical conditioning is the process of modifying behavior through rewards and punishment.
A. true
B. false

B. false

Which of the following is a form of operant conditioning:
A. expectancy theory
B. the expectation-performance-reward-satisfaction chain
C. the attempt by a supervisor to satisfy higher order needs of employees thru participation
D.behavior modification

D.behavior modification

Reinforcement and punishment are administered through:
A. extinction
B. positive and/or negative consequences
C. ignoring the behavior
D. withholding a positive consequence

B. positive and/or negative consequences

Assume you supervise a group of outside sales representatives. What reinforcement schedule will likely produce the highest level of sales performance?
A. continuous
B. variable ratio
C. fixed interval
D. variable interval

D. variable interval

Social learning theory is based on the belief that:
A. learning occurs because of behavioral consequences
B. learning occurs based on group norms
C. learning is strongly connected to need based drives
D. learning occurs through the observation of other people and the modeling of their behavior

D. learning occurs through the observation of other people and the modeling of their behavior

The process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior is known as:
A. motivation
B. goal setting
C. outcome instrumentality
D. establishing input/output equity perceptions

B. goal setting

Management by objectives is a goal setting and performance planning program originated by:
A. Albert Bandura
B. B.F. Skinner
C. J. Willard Marriott
D. Peter Drucker

A. Albert Bandura

Performance appraisal is used for all of the following EXCEPT:
A. evaluating employee work behavior
B. making promotion and other reward decisions
C. identifying employee developmental needs
D. selecting persons from a pool of job applicants

D. selecting persons from a pool of job applicants

An effective performance appraisal system will contain or display all of the following except:
A. reliabilty
B. validity
C. self-corrective behavior
D. responsiveness

C. self-corrective behavior

Organizations get the performance they reward, not the performance they want.
A. true
B. false

A. true

An informational cue indicating the degree to which a person behaves the same way in other situations is known as:
A. consistency
B. consensus
C. distinctiveness
D. inconsistency

C. distinctiveness

The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral or organizational consequences that may occur as a result of stressful events is known as:
A. distress
B. the stressor
C. the strain response
D. anxiety disorder

A. distress

The approach to stress that is based on the concept of homeostasis is known as:
A. physiological
B. psychoanalytic
C.social psychological
D. psychological-cogntive

D. psychological-cogntive

The person-environment approach to stress emphasizes the:
A. fit between external and internal role expectations
B. belief that effort will lead to performance
C. notion that perception and cognitive evaluations of situations differ and accordingly stress is mostly determined by perception
D. idea that fit between a person's self-image or concept and their ideal generates large stress when there is lack of it

A. fit between external and internal role expectations

Which of the following is NOT a mind-body change associated with stress?
A. redirection of blood to brain and large muscle groups
B. increased sensory alertness
C. release of glucose into the bloodstream
D. normal physical fatigue

D. normal physical fatigue

Which of the following is NOT considered to be a source of stress at work?
A. task demands
B. interpersonal demands
C. psychological demands
D. role demands

C. psychological demands

A manager who presses employees for both very fast work and high quality work would likely cause:
A. interrole conflict
B. intrarole conflict
C. person-role conflict
D. role ambiguity

B. intrarole conflict

The two major categories of "role stress" at work include:
A. role conflict and role overload
B. role conflict and role ambiguity
C. role ambiguity and role overload
D. role overload and ethical conflict

B. role conflict and role ambiguity

Eustress is positive stress.
A. true
B. false

A. true

The Yerkes-Dodson law suggests the relationship between stress level and performance arousal is:
A. u-shaped
B. linear and negative
C. bell-shaped
D. depends on the person

C. bell-shaped

A personality that tends to be resistant to distress is:
A. overdendent
B. Type A in nature
C. counterdependent
D. hardy

D. hardy

Self-reliance is a healthy, secure, ______ pattern of behavior.
A. overdendent
B. counterdependent
C. psychologically distant
D. interdependent

D. interdependent

The stage is preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain is called:
A. primary prevention
B. secondary prevention
C. tertiary prevention
D. job redesign

C. tertiary prevention

Job design, goal setting, and career management would be organizational stress prevention strategies applied at which stage of prevention?
A. escalating stage
B. primary stage
C. reduction stage
D. secondary stage

B. primary stage

An Employee Assistance Program is an organizational approach to stress reduction.
A. true
B. false

A. true

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