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Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols

about how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day

less than 300 mg

After a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as

chylomicrons

Approximately how many carbons are contained in a medium-chain fatty acid?

6-10

Approximately what percentage of the lipids in foods are triglycerides?

95

Bile is known to assist in the absorption of

fat only

A characteristic of lecithin supplements is they

are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine

Chylomicrons are synthesized within the

intestinal walls

A common feature of the plant sterols is they

inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol

The composition of lecithin could include all but

magnesium

A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a

triglyceride

The easiest way to increase intake of oleic acid is to consume more

olive oil

The food industry often carries out the process of hydrogenation on which lipids?

corn oil

How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?

It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover

How many double bonds are present in stearic acid

0

How many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond?

1

How much energy is contributed by one gram of lecithin in a dietary supplement?

9 kcal

In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains

less lipid.

In the digestion of fats, emulsifiers function as

detergents

In the process of fat hydrogenation, hydrogen atoms are added to which part of the molecule?

carbon

In which forms are most dietary lipids found?

Triglycerides

Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of...

double bonds

Lipids that are liquid at room temperature are known as...

oils

Lipids that are solid at room temperate are known as....

fats

A major cause of rancidity of lipids in food is exposure to...

heat and oxygen

Oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from

cis to trans

An omega-3 fatty acid has its first double bond on the....

third carbon from the methyl end

A person wishing to increase consumption of polyunsaturated fats should choose

vegetable oils

Spherical complexes of emulsified fats are known as

micelles

A triglyceride always contains 3

fatty acids

what cannot be found in plants?

Cholesterol

What characteristics is shared by olive oil and canola oil?

both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids

What compound cannot be synthesized from cholesterol?

glucose

What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and glycerol

Triglyceride

What compound is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?

polyunsaturated fatty acid

What describes a fatty-acid that has one double bond?

monounsaturated

What describes a feature of cis-fatty acids and trans-fatty acids?

In the body, trans-fatty acids are metabolized more like saturated fats than like unsaturated fats

what does not act as an emulsifier in the intestinal tract?

pancreatic lipase

What food contains cholesterol?

Roasted turkey

What has the highest percentage of its fat in a saturated form?

coconut oil

What has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?

corn oil

What is a characteristic of cholesterol?

It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis

What is a characteristic of lipids

corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil

What is a characteristic of the lipase enzymes?

Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants

What is a common source of medium-chain fatty acids?

Dairy products

What is a conjugated linoleic acid?

A fatty acid with the chemical make-up of linoleic acid but with a different configuration

What is a factor that determines the hardness of a fat at a given temperature?

Degree of saturation

What is a feature of cholesterol?

synthesized by the body

What is a feature of choline?

is it a part of lecithin

What is a feature of phospholipids?

soluble in both water and fat

What is a feature of polyunsaturated fats?

low melting point

What is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?

linoleic acid

What is a property of dietary lipids?

Omega-3 fatty acids are always insaturated

What is a triacylglyceride?

a triglyceride

What is an example of enterohepatic circulation?

Recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver

What is another feature of cholesterol?

its daily value is 300 mg

What is another feature of cholesterol?

only about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular

What is common dietary saturated fatty acid?

stearic acid

What is considered a major source f polyunsaturated fat?

corn oil

What is descriptive of fatty acid configuration?

Naturally occurring trans-fatty acids are found in dairy products

What is known as a tropical oil?

cocoa butter

What is NOT a characteristic of hydrogenated oils including...

products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life

What is NOT a destination for cholesterol?

Accumulates on walls of veins

what is NOT a feature of lecithin?

dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption

What is not a feature of the bile acids?

Manufactured by the gallbladder

what is NOT a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids

palm oil

What is NOT used by food processors to stabilize the lipids in food products

addition of oxidizing chemicals

What is the approximate energy value of one teaspoon of liquid lecithin supplement?

45 kcal

What is the chemical composition of fats?

fatty acids and glycerol

What is the major source of "good" cholesterol?

Endogenous synthesis

What is the major sterol in the diet?

cholesterol

What is the simplest 18-carbon fatty acid?

Stearic acid

What is the simplest fatty acid found in the diet?

Acetic Acid

What is the storage site of bile?

gallbladder

What is the usual fate of dietary lecithin?

hydrolyzed by the intestinal enzyme lecithinase

What lipid contain(s) saturated fat?

Butter, cottonseed oil, and soybean oil

What lipoprotein is largest in size?

Chylomicron

What lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?

Low-density lipoprotein

What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?

small intestine

What percentage of stored body fat is in the form of triglycerides?

99

What provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids?

flaxseed oil

What represents a chief source of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids?

Dairy

What source would yield the softest lipids at room temperature?

safflower

What structural feature of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?

Number of double bonds

What substance cannot be absorbed directly into the blood?

Long-chain fatty acids

What term may be used to describe a substance that is hydrophobic?

Lipophilic

What type of compound is lecithin?

phosopholipid

What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts of olive oil?

monounsaturated

What would be least effective at preventing oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in processed foods?

addition of phosphorus

What would be the least effective method to control blood cholesterol levels?

eat more insoluble fiber

When stored at room temperature in loosely capped containers, which of the following dietary lipids would turn rancid in the shortest time?

soybean oil

Which characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?

Both are synthesized in the body

Your aunt Gladys has a family history of heart disease. She decides to begin eating a bowl of oatmeal every morning to help lower her blood cholesterol. After about a month of following this routine, her cholesterol declined about 5 points. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this effect?

Oatmeal is high in soluble fibers that trap bile, causing the body to use more cholesterol for bile replacement

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