Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols
about how much cholesterol is synthesized by the liver every day
less than 300 mg
After a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as
Approximately how many carbons are contained in a medium-chain fatty acid?
Approximately what percentage of the lipids in foods are triglycerides?
Bile is known to assist in the absorption of
A characteristic of lecithin supplements is they
are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine
Chylomicrons are synthesized within the
A common feature of the plant sterols is they
inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol
The composition of lecithin could include all but
A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a
The easiest way to increase intake of oleic acid is to consume more
The food industry often carries out the process of hydrogenation on which lipids?
How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover
How many double bonds are present in stearic acid
How many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond?
How much energy is contributed by one gram of lecithin in a dietary supplement?
In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains
In the digestion of fats, emulsifiers function as
In the process of fat hydrogenation, hydrogen atoms are added to which part of the molecule?
In which forms are most dietary lipids found?
Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of...
Lipids that are liquid at room temperature are known as...
Lipids that are solid at room temperate are known as....
A major cause of rancidity of lipids in food is exposure to...
heat and oxygen
Oil that is partially hydrogenated sometimes changes one or more of its double bond configurations from
cis to trans
An omega-3 fatty acid has its first double bond on the....
third carbon from the methyl end
A person wishing to increase consumption of polyunsaturated fats should choose
Spherical complexes of emulsified fats are known as
A triglyceride always contains 3
what cannot be found in plants?
What characteristics is shared by olive oil and canola oil?
both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids
What compound cannot be synthesized from cholesterol?
What compound is composed of 3 fatty acids and glycerol
What compound is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?
polyunsaturated fatty acid
What describes a fatty-acid that has one double bond?
What describes a feature of cis-fatty acids and trans-fatty acids?
In the body, trans-fatty acids are metabolized more like saturated fats than like unsaturated fats
what does not act as an emulsifier in the intestinal tract?
What food contains cholesterol?
What has the highest percentage of its fat in a saturated form?
What has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?
What is a characteristic of cholesterol?
It is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
What is a characteristic of lipids
corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil
What is a characteristic of the lipase enzymes?
Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
What is a common source of medium-chain fatty acids?
What is a conjugated linoleic acid?
A fatty acid with the chemical make-up of linoleic acid but with a different configuration
What is a factor that determines the hardness of a fat at a given temperature?
Degree of saturation
What is a feature of cholesterol?
synthesized by the body
What is a feature of choline?
is it a part of lecithin
What is a feature of phospholipids?
soluble in both water and fat
What is a feature of polyunsaturated fats?
low melting point
What is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?
What is a property of dietary lipids?
Omega-3 fatty acids are always insaturated
What is a triacylglyceride?
What is an example of enterohepatic circulation?
Recycling of bile from the intestine to the liver
What is another feature of cholesterol?
its daily value is 300 mg
What is another feature of cholesterol?
only about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular
What is common dietary saturated fatty acid?
What is considered a major source f polyunsaturated fat?
What is descriptive of fatty acid configuration?
Naturally occurring trans-fatty acids are found in dairy products
What is known as a tropical oil?
What is NOT a characteristic of hydrogenated oils including...
products containing them become rancid sooner, contributing to a shorter shelf life
What is NOT a destination for cholesterol?
Accumulates on walls of veins
what is NOT a feature of lecithin?
dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption
What is not a feature of the bile acids?
Manufactured by the gallbladder
what is NOT a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids
What is NOT used by food processors to stabilize the lipids in food products
addition of oxidizing chemicals
What is the approximate energy value of one teaspoon of liquid lecithin supplement?
What is the chemical composition of fats?
fatty acids and glycerol
What is the major source of "good" cholesterol?
What is the major sterol in the diet?
What is the simplest 18-carbon fatty acid?
What is the simplest fatty acid found in the diet?
What is the storage site of bile?
What is the usual fate of dietary lecithin?
hydrolyzed by the intestinal enzyme lecithinase
What lipid contain(s) saturated fat?
Butter, cottonseed oil, and soybean oil
What lipoprotein is largest in size?
What lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?
What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
What percentage of stored body fat is in the form of triglycerides?
What provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids?
What represents a chief source of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids?
What source would yield the softest lipids at room temperature?
What structural feature of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?
Number of double bonds
What substance cannot be absorbed directly into the blood?
Long-chain fatty acids
What term may be used to describe a substance that is hydrophobic?
What type of compound is lecithin?
What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts of olive oil?
What would be least effective at preventing oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in processed foods?
addition of phosphorus
What would be the least effective method to control blood cholesterol levels?
eat more insoluble fiber
When stored at room temperature in loosely capped containers, which of the following dietary lipids would turn rancid in the shortest time?
Which characteristics are shared by cholesterol and lecithin?
Both are synthesized in the body
Your aunt Gladys has a family history of heart disease. She decides to begin eating a bowl of oatmeal every morning to help lower her blood cholesterol. After about a month of following this routine, her cholesterol declined about 5 points. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this effect?
Oatmeal is high in soluble fibers that trap bile, causing the body to use more cholesterol for bile replacement