French Revolution

33 terms by neville7959 

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General Will

The will of the majority (the majority should always work for the common good)

Social Contract

The notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others

Separation of Powers

The division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government

Natural Rights

The idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property

Consent of the Governed

People are the source of any and all governmental power

Old Order

In France the king was at the top of society with the three estates beneath him, also known as the ancient regime

Louis XVI

French king at the time of the French Revolution, he was later beheaded

Marie Antoinette

French queen at the time of the French Revolution, she is beheaded

First Estate

Made up of the Roman Catholic clergy, about 1 percent of society, no taxes and did not answer to same laws as everyone else

Second Estate

Made up of the nobility, less than 2 percent of society, paid no taxes

Third Estate

Largest group in French society, about 97 percent of the population, only group taxed, included bourgeoisie, artisans, workers, and peasants

Bourgeoisie

City-dwelling merchants, factory owners, and professionals; some were highly educated and wealthy and were part of the third estate

National Assembly

A French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people

Tennis Court Oath

A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution

The Great Fear

A vast panic that spread quickly through France in 1789; peasant rebellions bacame part of the Great Fear; citizens, fearing invasion by foreign troops that would support the French monarchy, formed militias

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

"liberty, equality, fraternity (brotherhood)", document stating basic rights for all men (not women) adopted by the National Assembly in 1789

March on Versailles

'Bread March of Women' was due to bread shortages and increasingly high prices. In 1789 when rumors spread that nobles were hoarding bread, women joined together and stormed Versailles, blaming the situation on Marie Antoinette.

Fall of the Bastille

Hundreds of hungry people stormed the prison in search of gunpowder to save Paris and the National Assembly; this was the symbolic start of the revolution

Paris Commune

Radical Parisian government which called for the election of a new legislature; granting all men the right to vote and organizing the writing of a democratic constitution

Sans Culottes

"without knee breaches", the workers of the third estate who would go hungry without work, in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages

1st Constitution of 1791

This document limited the monarch, provided natural rights, and put the Catholic Church under control of govt.

Robespierre

Known for his intense dedication to revolution, became very radical and led National Convention during its bloodiest time

Guillotine

Device that dropped a sharp, heavy blade through a victim's neck

Reign of Terror

A series of accusations, trials, and executions to eliminate any opposition to the revolutionary government

The Directory

Established after the Reign of Terror / National Convention; a five man group as the executive branch of the country; incompetent and corrupt, only lasted for 4 years

Napoleon Bonaparte

General and Emperor of France, seized power in a coup d'etat in 1799, conquered much of Europe

Consulate

Government established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799, with Napoleon as first consul in control of the entire government

Napoleonic Code

Law which embodied Elightenment principles such as equality of male citizens, religious toleration, and merit based advancement

Grand Empire

The empire over which Napoleon and his allies ruled, encompassing virtually all of Europe except Great Britain and Russia.

The Continental System

A system put into place between 1806 and 1807 by Napoleon. It attempted to prevent British goods from reaching the European continent in order to weaken Britain economically and destroy its capacity to wage war.

Great Retreat

Massive pullback of Napolean's troops to France after they gave up trying to catch and fight the Russians; most troops died on the way back due to fierce winter storms and temperatures

Elba

First island off the coast of Italy that Napoleon was exiled to after losing the battle of Leipzig

Waterloo

The battle where Napoleon met his final defeat

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