white racial identity development
1. naivete 2. conformity 3. dissonance 4. resistance and immersion 5. introspection 6. integrative awareness 7. commitment to antiracist action
early childhood innocence (awareness may occur between ages of 3 -5 years)
strong belief in the universality of values and norms governing behavior.
primary mechanism used in encapsulation
denial that people are different, denial that discrimination exists, and denial of your own prejudices. Instead, the locus of the problem is seen to reside in the minority individual or group.
obliviousness breaks down when Whites become aware of inconsistencies. forced to deal with the inconsistencies that have been compartmentalized or encounter information/experiences at odds with their denial.
emotions that accompany dissonance
guilt, depression, anger, helplessness or anxiety
two responses to dissonance
1. retreat into encapsulation of conformity 2. move toward resistance and immersion
resistance and immersion
Whites begin to question and challenge their racism. For the first time, they begin to realize what racism is all about, and their eyes are suddenly opened. Racism becomes noticeable in all facets of their daily lives
emotions associated with resistance and immersion
anger and guilt
white liberal syndrome 2 complementary styles
(a) the paternalistic protector role or (b) an over identification with the minority group.
responses to resistance and immersion
moving back into the protective confines of White culture (Conformity stage), again experience conflict (dissonance), or move directly to the Introspective stage.
a state of relative quiescence, introspection and reformulation of what it means to be White. Less motivated by guilt and defensiveness, accept Whiteness, and seek to define own identity and that of one's social group.
1. understand self as a racial/cultural being 2. awareness of sociopolitical influences 3. appreciation of diversity 4. rooting out buried and nested fears and emotions
integrative awareness differs from introspection
(a) It is marked by a shift in focus from trying to change people of color to changing the self and other Whites, and (b) it is marked with increasing experiential and affective understanding that were lacking in the previous status.
successful resolution of integrative awareness requires
requires an emotional catharsis or release that forces you to relive or reexperience previous emotions that were denied or distorted.
commitment to antiracist action
Most characterized by social action. There is likely to be a consequent change in behavior, and an increased commitment toward eradicating oppression as well.
Hardiman White racial identity development model rationale
to study why some peope exhibit a much more nonracist identity than others
stages in the Hardiman White racial identity development model
1. naivete, 2. acceptance, 3. resistance, 4. re-definition, 5. internalization
criticisms of Hardiman White racial identity development model
1. select and limited sample, 2. subjects were not represnetative, 3. tied to social development models and the naivete stage is only from ages 3 - 4, 4. no empiracal or postmodern studies of the model to date
Helms White racial identity model *** (mosty influential) 6 statuses
1. contact, 2. disintegration, 3. reintegration, 4. pseudoindependence, 5. immersion/emersion, 6. autonomy
Helms White racial identity model two phases
1. abandoment of racism 2. defining a nonracist identity
2 belief systems may co-exist: 1. uncritical acceptance of White superiority 2. racial and cultural differences are unimportant
attempts to resolve breakdown of denial may lead to 1. avoiding persons of color, 2. not thinking about race, 3. seeking reassurance from others that racism is not the fault of Whites
retreat to dominant ideology. racial and ethnic minorities are blamed for their own problems
attempts to understand differences & makes a decision to interact.
pseudoindependence status problem dynamics
1. may try to be helpful but may unknowingly perpetuate racism by helping minorities adjust to White standards, 2. choice of interaction is based on similarity. tends to be intellectual and conceptual
more willingness to confront bias
immersion/emersion status differs from pseudoindependence
1. a shift in focus from trying to change others to changing self and other Whites, 2. increasing experiential and affective understanding
immersion/emersion status tasks
1. 1. all our personal memories connected with the other group 2. racist images and stereotypes we've heard, 3. any race-related things we ourslves have said, did, or omitted
awareness of one's Whiteness, reduced guilt, acceptance of one's role in perpetuating racism, determination to abandon entitelment. KNowledgeable about differences. Values divesity. Not fearful of experiential reality of race.
information processing strategies (defintion)
defences used to avoid or assuage anxiety
defence for contact
obliviousness or denial
defence for disintegration
defence for reintegration
selective perception and negative out group distortion
defence for pseudoindependence
reshape reality and selective perception
defence for immersion/emersion
hypervigilance and reshaping
defence for autonomy
flexibility and complexity
1. based on ethical minority development model 2. too much emphasis on White visions of minorities instead of on themselves, 3. problem with stages leading to most healthy development 4. based on White Racial Identity Attitude Scale which is not supported by empiracal data
unachieved (avoidant, dependent, dissonant) and achieved (dominative, conflictive, reactive, integrative)