tend to focus on physical objects created by humans to interpret the past
Egypt, China, and Central America
Writing originated in
The first written records date back ___________ years ago
Ancient Americans' lack of _________ makes studying their history challenging.
Historians generally use __________ to learn about the past.
The process of __________ isolated the Western Hemisphere from other continents.
Human beings evolved in __________ about 2 million years ago.
It is most likely that the first human migrants to North America were from __________.
Clovis points were used for ___________.
The extinction of large game animals
___________ forced the Paleo-Indians to turn to foraging as a source of food.
The hunting and gathering cultures that descended from Paleo-Indians are known by archaeologists as __________.
The hunters of the ____________ stalked bison on foot.
Great Basin peoples, Woodland peoples, and the Chumash
Due to plentiful food resources, ____________ were able to establish permanent villages.
Great Basin peoples
__________ inhabited a region of great environmental diversity between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada.
____________ was one of the most important developments in the culture of the Woodland peoples.
It is likely that a fifty-year drought caused the disappearance of the ______________.
Kivas, used for religious ceremonies, were built by the______________.
The Adena peoples began the practice, continued by the Hopewell, of building ____________.
_____________ culture began to decline around AD 400, possibly because their settlements had become less dependent on the central authority of chiefs
The Mississippian site of ____________ was the largest settlement in ancient North America.
The League of Five Nations was a(n) _____________ confederation.
The __________ peoples, who carried remnants of the Mississippian culture, lived throughout the woodlands of the Southeast, south of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.
Great Plains Tribes
At the time of Columbus's arrival in the Western Hemisphere, many ______________ depended on buffalo for subsistence.
The Dalles was the name of a _________________.
for hunting deer, to clearing land for planiting corn and for hunting buffalo
Native Americans often used fires _____________.
Spain and Portugal
By 1500, the Mexican empire encompassed a larger area than __________ combined and contained almost three times as many people.
The capital of the Mexican empire was _______________.
__________ held the most exalted positions in the Mexican social hierarchy
The elite classes used ______________ to illustrate their wealth and power.
war god Huitzilopochtli
Mexicans used captured prisoners as sacrifices to the __________.
do precisely the same thing, and use different methods to obtain information about the past.
Archaeologists and historians
Archaeologists study the past by concentrating on
Historians base their interpretation of the past largely on
invention of writing
The distinction between the study of humans by archaeologists and the study of humans by historians is often denoted by the
prior to human evolution in Africa, the Western Hemisphere-North and South America-detached from the gigantic supercontinent called Pangaea.
Human beings did not begin to live in the Western Hemisphere until long after they had evolved because
learned how to sew animal skins into warm clothing
Humans were able to permanently reside in cold regions after they
the Wisonsin glaciation
The land bridge connecting Siberia to Alaska was exposed from around 80,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago as a result of
used stone tools tp prepare food from wild plants
Archaic peoples differed from their Paleo-Indian ancestors in that they
The Folsom hunters of the Great Plains
largely replaced spears
By about AD 500, on the Great Plains, bows and arrows had
Permanent agricultural settlements in North America first emerged in the
the climate was dry
Southwestern peoples probably developed systems of agriculture because
restrict their migratory habits
The introduction of corn encouraged Southwestern hunter-gatherers to
The Mogollon culture was marked by its
The Algonquian tribes who lived along the Atlantic coast differed from the inland and northern tribes, such as the Abenaki, Penobscot, and Chippewa, in that the coastal Algonquians
The Iroquoian tribes of Pennsylvania and upstate New York lived in
Iroquoian societies were unusual in that they were
The Muskogean peoples were the descendants of the
By 1492, the indigenous population of the New World was about the same as the population of
The empire of the Mexica was located in
their monuments and the records of Spanis conquerors
Historians know more about fifteenth-century Mexica than about any other Native American society of the time because of
settled near Lake Texcoco and began hiring out as mercenaries for other tribes
The empire of the Mexica had its origins in c. AD 1325, when they
Homo sapiens evolved in and migrated out of
the cultures that descended from Paleo-indians
The term Archaic is used by archaeologists to describe
about 8,000 years ago
The development of writing occurred
many forms of symbolic representation.
The ancient Americans who inhabited North America in 1492 possessed
the lack of written records constrains attempts to reconstruct its history.
Historians' work on ancient America is limited because
must rely on the work of archaeologists, write with a greater degree of uncertainty, and consider other sources such as artifacts
Without written records, historians interested in ancient America
the land bridge between Siberia and Alaska
Ancient humans migrated to the Western Hemisphere by means of Beringia,
most likely had little effect on their day-to-day lives.
The migrations of Siberian hunters across Beringia and into the Western Hemisphere
the eastern side of Canadian Rockies
Most archaeologists believe that Paleo-Indians migrated into North America by traveling along
The most densely settled area in all of ancient North America was
relativeky permanent villages
The Chumash people of California were able to establish
sophisticated woodworking skills
About 5,500 years ago, peoples in the Pacific Northwest began to develop
pottery and agriculture
Around 4000 BP, Woodland cultures were changed by the introduction of
built irrigation canals for their crops
The Hohokam peoples
multistory cliff dwellings
Beginning around AD 1000, the Anasazi moved from pit houses on mesa tops to
a long doubt
Anasazi culture disappeared as a result of
the existence of a social and political hierarchy
The burial mounds constructed by Woodland cultures suggest
The Native American population of North America around the time of Columbus's arrival in the Western Hemisphere might be estimated at
been forced westward by Iroquoian and Algonquian tribes
Between AD 1300 and AD 1500, many of the tribes on the Great Plains had
included hunters and farmers
By AD 1492, the Great Plains tribes
prayed on Pueblo indians
The Athapascan tribes of the Southwest
The central values of the Mexica revolved around
The ultimate act of bravery among the Mexica was to
way to collect tribute
The empire of the Mexica was basically a
discontent among subject peoples
The weakness of the empire of the Mexica was the
The __________ were the first Europeans to venture down the African coast
Prince Henry the Navigator
The most influential advocate of Portuguese exploration was __________.
Vasco de Gama
_______________ was the first explorer to sail from Europe to India.
______________ was the name of the ship that helped make ocean travel more manageable for explorers, especially the Portuguese.
The Portuguese and Spanish cooperated in the __________, in which they expelled the Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula.
_______________ believed he could reach Asia by sailing west, rejecting theories that Earth's circumference was too great for such a voyage to be feasible.
The Treaty of Tordesillas
The __________ granted to the Spanish all land discovered west of an imaginary line eleven hundred miles west of the Canary Islands.
The 1507 map drawn by____________________ was important because, for the first time, the New World was shown separate from Asia.
__________ was the first European to circumnavigate the globe.
The transatlantic trade of goods, people, and ideas that began after Columbus landed in the Caribbean became known as the ___________________
Hernán Cortés was aided greatly in his search for the Aztec kingdom by the services of his translator, __________.
Montezuma, the Mexican emperor, initially used gifts and hospitality in his efforts to defend ____________, the Mexican capital city, from Cortes and his soldiers.
Hernando de Soto
__________________ discovered the riches of the Incan empire.
Bartolomé de Las Casas
One of the foremost critics of the Spanish treatment of Indians was _________
In the stratified society of New Spain, _______________ were the New World offspring of Spanish men and women.
Holy Roman Empire
In 1519, Charles I of Spain used his New World wealth to secure his selection as __________
Martin Luther initiated the __________ in 1517.
Charles V's successor was his son __________.
the Northwest Passage
Throughout the sixteenth century, European explorers continued to search for _____________.
The English sent _______________ to establish a settlement on Roanoke Island
overland from Persia, Asia Minor, India, and Africa.
Prior to the fifteenth century, luxury and exotic goods traveled to Europe
From the twelfth century through the fifteenth century, Mediterranean trade was dominated by
establish coastal trading posts
The Portuguese determined that the most profitable way to use Africa was to
By the early sixteenth century, the Portuguese controlled a major commercial empire in
Columbus's initial journey was sponsored by the monarchy of
it was niot filled in riches
Columbus and his men were disappointed by San Salvador because
were headed for the New World
After Magellan's voyage to circumnavigate the globe, most Europeans who crossed the Atlantic
corn and potatoes
Europeans procured a number of valuable items from the New World, including
In 1521, Cortés mounted a victorious assault on the
The largest treasure produced by Spanish conquests in the New World came from
stratified by race and country of origin.
Society in New Spain was
When the Indian population of New Spain dwindled, decimated by European diseases and hard labor, the Spanish began to import
The __________ century was Spain's Golden Age
was not nearly enough to finance their military ambitions.
Ultimately, the wealth that Charles V and his successor, Philip II, derived from New Spain
Martin Frobisher's sailing expedition into the waters of northern Canada was sponsored by the
Sir Walter Raleigh
The English colonization of Roanoke Island was organized by
the Black Death
A major reason for the increasing fervor over western exploration in the fifteenth century was
be elevated to the aristocracy
Ambitious explorers such as Columbus hoped to
Astrolabes and quadrants were used to
The first Europeans to use new maritime technology to sail outside the limits of the known world were the
appeared to make Spain a serious challenger to Portugal in the race for a sea route to Asia
Columbus's first journey
King Henry VII of England funded a voyage to discover a "Northwest Passage" to India under the leadership of
The Portuguese explorer Pedro álvars Cabral accidentally made landfall at
published the first map to show the New World as separate from Asia
In 1507, Martin Waldseemüller
The Spanish distributed lands to conquistadors through the system of
The most important treasure the Spanish plundered from their New World holdings was
of their Christian scruples
Some missionaries, such as Bartolomé de Las Casas, were disturbed by the brutal treatment inflicted by the encomenderos on Indians because
For Spain, the most important economic activity in New Spain after 1540 was
What did Charles I use to secure his selection as Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1519?
Christians could gain salvation and eternal life only by having faith that God would save them.
Martin Luther's doctrine of "justification by faith" held that
power and prestige
In the sixteenth century, European nations realized that colonization had given Spain
Giovanni de Verranzano
Who did France enlist to scout the Atlantic coast of North America for a Northwest Passage?
joint stock companies
English merchants used __________ to pool capital and share risks in trading voyages to Europe, Africa, and Asia
King James's charter giving the Virginia Company over six million acres of land was, in effect, a royal license to poach on __________ claims
The __________ that settlers acquired from nearby Indian tribes helped the settlement of Jamestown survive through 1607.
____________________ led the first Indian attack against the colonists in 1622
revoked Virginia's chapter and made it a royal colony
Following the Indian uprising in 1622, King James __________________.
The first commercial shipment of tobacco left ___________ in 1617
Settlers who paid their own way to the Chesapeake received a grant of free land known as a(n) ___________.
Eighty percent of the immigrants who traveled to the colonies during the seventeenth century were ______________
Most of the Chesapeake colonists, although _____________, did not experience the same religious awakening as did colonists in New England
In 1632, King Charles I gave his friend ________________ 6.5 million acres in the northern Chesapeake region to establish a Catholic colony
The __________ exerted a powerful influence on the development of slavery in the mainland colonies
_______________ was known as the "jewel of the West Indies."
____________________ was the colony most closely associated with Barbados
________________ and the other proprietors of Carolina hoped to develop a profitable export crop
The __________ population of the Chesapeake grew fivefold during the last third of the seventeenth century
King James I
The first English monarch to seriously consider supporting colonists in Spanish North America was
joint stock company
The Virginia Company was a
In March of 1622, an all-out assault on English settlers in Virginia was organized by
a royal investigation of affairs in Virginia
The 1622 uprising by the Algonquians against English settlers in Virginia prompted
planted West Indian tobacco seeds in Virginia for the first time
In 1612, John Rolfe
the financial returns on a successful crop were significant and much higher than agricultural wages in England
An exhausting crop to maintain, tobacco had English settlers in the Chesapeake working hard in their tobacco fields because
The seventeenth-century Chesapeake was fundamentally a society of
Female servants were prohibited from
free farmers and iundentured servants
Until the middle of the seventeenth century, the principal social division in the Chesapeake was between
The Indian uprising of 1644, in which around five hundred colonists were killed in two days, was led by
already settled by the English
The treaty drawn up at the end of the war begun by the Indian uprising of 1644 decreed that Indians had to relinquish all claims to land
settlers were encroaching on Indian land.
During the 1660s and 1670s, violence between settlers and Indians increased because
In the seventeenth century, Spain's colonies in New Mexico and Florida
the colonies generated little income of their own
The colonies in New Mexico and Florida required expensive subsidies from Spain because
convert Indians not only to Christianity but also to the ways of Spanish culture
Missionaries to Florida and New Mexico wanted to
destroyed the symbols of Catholic religion and temporarily ended Spanish rule.
In New Mexico's Pueblo Revolt of 1680, Popé and his followers
In the seventeenth century, the most profitable part of the British New World empire was located in
By 1700, three-quarters of the population of Barbados consisted of
The slave labor system polarized Chesapeake society along the lines of
did not suffer mistreatment
In contrast to slaves in Barbados, slaves in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake
When the English first settled in Jamestown, they faced strong resistance from the
disease and starvation
Despite threats of all kinds, the most brutal killers the English settlers faced were
plundered Indian stockpiles
When Indians no longer wanted to trade for corn, settlers
Under royal government in Virginia, the colony's inhabitants could vote for
a years wages
The cost of passage from England to the Chesapeake was about £5, which for an English servant or laborer was roughly the equivalent of
After serving his or her indenture, an employer was required to give a servant
men between the ages of 15 and 25
Most indentured servants were
did not hesitate to devise legal ways to keep servants under their control.
Planters in the Chesapeake were so hungry for labor that they
end of the general social equality of the Chesapeake population
The decline in the price of tobacco in the third quarter of the seventeenth century contributed to the
men who were landowners and householders
After 1670, voting in Virginia was restricted to
only to English ports
The Navigation Act of 1660 required that all colonial products be sent
strengthened the position of elite planters.
Ultimately, Bacon's Rebellion
they hoped that missionaries would make peace with the Indians and that the colonies would maintain a Spanish presence in North America.
Although the costs of maintaining Spain's colonies in New Mexico and Florida outweighed their benefits, Spanish monarchs continued to support these colonies because
a major cause of Indian resentment against Spanish rule
The efforts to convert New Mexico's Indians to Christianity were
The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 occurred in
heavy-handed attempts to convert the Indians to Christianity would fail.
By the end of the seventeenth century, Spanish colonial administrators in New Mexico and Florida had learned that
Barbadian John Colleton established the colony of
The first profitable export crop grown in Carolina was
slaves never went out of bondage
By 1700, an advantage of slave labor over servant labor was that
easing the class tensions that had been created by the servant labor system.
The expansion of slavery in the Chesapeake shaped colonial politics by
By 1770, the population of the colonies numbered well over ____________________.
__________ made up about three-fourths of colonial population growth
The smallest number of eighteenth-century immigrants came from __________
The largest number of eighteenth-century immigrants came from ______________.
the Atlantic coastline
After almost a century of settlement, most colonists lived within fifty miles of __________.
The colonies in the upper South, surrounding the Chesapeake Bay, specialized in growing __________, as they had since the early seventeenth century.
Until Georgia was founded in 1732, __________ was the sole British colony along the southern Atlantic coast
the Middle Passage
Olaudah Equiano published an account of his enslavement and the treacherous, and often fatal, voyage to the colonies from Africa that became known as
Established slaves were given the task of _______________ the "new Negores" to life on the plantations.
Politically, the eighteenth-century southern ____________ became a self-perpetuating oligarchy
phenomenal population growth.
The most important fact about eighteenth-century colonial America is its
varied in people and environments.
By 1770, the thirteen colonies were
In general, the growth and diversity of the eighteenth-century population derived from
About 33 percent of all eighteenth-century immigrants came from
high ratio of people to land.
The most important reason why immigrants avoided New England was its
divided the land equally among sons
When bequeathing land, New England families
Puritan communities lost their cohesiveness.
When settlers dispersed from New England towns in search of farmland
The commercial economy of New England was dominated by
The large-scale migration of German immigrants to the middle colonies originated primarily from
Protestsant and clannish
German and Scots-Irish immigrants both tended to be
the masters commands
The conditions under which a slave labored were legally set by
The major export from the middle colonies was
By 1770, the most populous region of the British colonies was
came from different African cultures
African slaves in the South
During the Middle Passage (the long trip across the Atlantic from Africa to the Americas), African slaves on average died at a rate of
only occasional tension
The vast differences of wealth among white southerners engendered
ordinary people could buy small luxury items
The European market for colonial goods made it clear that
The most famous revivalist in the eighteenth century was
defended the colonists from indigenous and foreign enemies.
At a minimum, British power
became stronger than royal governors
During the eighteenth century, colonial assemblies
The largest percentage of immigrants to America during the eighteenth century were
In addition to the growth in population, one of the major features of eighteenth-century colonial society was the
the Atlantic coast
In 1700, most colonists lived within fifty miles of
rapidly and without widespread poverty
The abundance of land meant that it was possible for the colonial population to grow
During the eighteenth century, the colonial governments of Connecticut and Massachusetts started selling land to
Many New Englanders made a living
one-half of the cities wealth
In the late seventeenth century, the richest 5 percent of Bostonians owned about one-third of the city's wealth; by 1770, they owned
Most of the slaves in New England were concentrated
deteriorating economic conditions
Immigrants from northern Ireland, Scotland, and northern England usually left their homes because of
by selling their labor under contract
. "Redemptioners" paid their way to the colonies
Most farms in the middle colonies operated using
planters' preferences for slaves from specific regions of Africa.
The process of acculturation was helped by
turned work into secular faith
The popularity of Benjamin Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanack demonstrated that Pennsylvania's colonists had
giving birth to babies who would also be slaves
Slave women were encouraged to contribute to the financial success of southern colonies by
served for life, could be disciplined freely, and afforded a greater profit
Masters preferred black slaves over white indentured servants because slaves
eighteenth-century slaves had no chance of overturning slavery.
The Stono rebellion demonstrated that
encouraged colonists to think about their individual wants.
Rising consumption of various British imports gave colonists more choices about what to buy; those new choices
imparted the message that every soul mattered.
The religious revivals of the eighteenth century were important because they
they were rivals of the Creeks and wanted access to British trade goods
During the Yamasee War of 1715, the Cherokees helped the English settlers in South Carolina fight against the Creek and Yamasee Indians because
check Russian expansion
Spain expanded its influence in California in order to
British Prime Ministers
In the 1760s, ______________ wrestled with the issue of how to service the war debt without antagonizing colonists unduly
The ______________ raised revenue by lowering the duty on molasses and increasing penalties for smuggling
In Boston, resistance to the Stamp Act was spearheaded by John Hancock, Ebenezer Mackintosh, and ______________, a town politician
____________________ was the policy that Britain adopted in order to justify their excessive taxing of the colonies.
petitioning Parliment to dismess the Stamp Act
The Stamp Act Congress of 1765 responded to the Stamp Act by ________________.
______________, the chancellor of the exchequer, turned to duties levied on transatlantic trade to pay for the war debt and the cost of stationing British troops in Americ
The chancellor of the exchequer expected the ___________ of 1767 to be acceptable to colonists because it comprised external taxes on transatlantic trade
Daughter of Liberty
______________ contributed substantially to the boycott of British goods, especially tea and cloth
The Boston Massacre resulted in five American victims, one of whom was ______________, the first African American to die in the American Revolution
The Townshend Acts taxed all of the following except ______________.
contested land in the Ohio valley
The Seven Years' War broke out over
but limited government to coordinate defense and Indian affairs
The Albany Plan of Union proposed a unified
The person responsible for turning the Seven Years' War in Britain's favor was
had been disdainful of and abusive toward American colonial soldiers
Following the war, colonists complained that the British military
raising the duty on French molasses
The Sugar Act tried to end the illegal importation of French molasses directly into the colonies by
openly designed to raise money
The Stamp Act differed from earlier legislative efforts to raise revenue because it was
providing an incentive to overcome the risks of enforcing the act.
Grenville ordered that local stamp distributors be hired at a generous salary, thereby
prevent the distribution of stamped paper
Local communities decided that the most effective way to protest the Stamp Act was to
embodies the idea of taxation through trade duties
The Townshend duties imposed by the Revenue Act of 1767 were unpopular because they
pay the salaries of royal governors
One very controversial aspect of the Townshend duties was that some of the revenue would
it refused to repudiate Samuel Adams's denunciation of the Townshend duties
Lord Hillsborough ordered Massachusetts governor Francis Bernard to dissolve the Massachusetts assembly because|
of demonstrations revealing strong anti-British sentiment in Boston
In the fall of 1768, three thousand British troops occupied Boston because
repealing the Townshend duties
Around the time of the Boston Massacre, the new British prime minister, Frederick North, recommended
was seen as an affront to New Englanders
The Quebec Act upset colonists because it
of different minds about how to respond to the Coercive Acts.
The delegates to the First Continental Congress were
requested more soldiers and advised repeal of the Coercive Acts
When armed confrontation broke out in Massachusetts, Thomas Gage, military commander and the new royal governor,
accumulated arms and ammunition
Over the winter of 1774-75, pessimistic Americans who were unhappy with the Coercive Acts and the British presence in Boston
endorsed by Thomas Hutchinson and John Hancock
A 1773 book of poems by Phillis Wheatley, a Boston slave, that spoke of freedom for slaves was
generally used as menial labor
Black slaves who fled to the British army during the Revolutionary War were
creating semiofficial links among colonial governments
The British handling of the GaspÉe incident had the unintended effect of
George Washington's first armed expedition against the French in the Ohio Valley
ignored Indian territorial claims
The Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years' War
keep a standing army in the colonies
Prime Minister Bute's most significant decision while in office was to
initiated the uprising against the British
Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa tribe, became famous after he
board suspicious ships and seize cargoes found to be in violation.
The Sugar Act permitted all British naval crews to assume roles as customs officers and
colonists were virtually represented in government
Prime Minister Grenville defended the Stamp Act by arguing that
a large street demonstration
Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty decided to oppose the Stamp Act by means of
advanced the idea of intercolonial political action
The Stamp Act Congress was radical because it
hurt trade with Great Brittain
In 1767 and 1768, many colonial towns passed nonconsumption agreements, which were intended to
The Townshend duties provided the colonists an unparalleled opportunity for encouraging
the Boston Massacre
On March 5, 1770, colonial tensions came to a climax after
defended the soldiers who were involved
After the Boston Massacre, Sons of Liberty members John Adams and Josiah Quincy famously
pressuring tea agents to resign
The revived Sons of Liberty combated the Tea Act by
closing the harbor to all shipping
The Boston Port Act punished the city for the Tea Party by
altered the colonys charter
The Massachusetts Government Act
colonial governments had the sole right to legislate for their residents.
The declaration of rights produced by the First Continental Congress made the claim that
American minutemen occupying the trade center
When General Gage's troops set off to Concord to plunder and confiscate a suspected ammunition site in April 1775, they found
removing stockpiles of gunpowder and threatening to arm slaves
The royal governor of Virginia, Lord Dunmore, responded to the outbreak of excitement over the battles at Lexington and Concord by
any able-bodied male slave who would fight for the British
In 1775, Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, issued an official proclamation offering freedom to
Southern slaves responded to Lord Dunmore's offer of freedom in return for support of the British with
After the battle of ______________, General Howe insisted on pulling his troops back to Boston, where they lingered for another nine months
______________ wrote Common Sense, a pamphlet that helped destroy the automatic deference most Americans still had for the monarchy
remember to include rights of women
Abigail Adams asked that her husband, John Adams, _____________________ when helping to draft the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence
After its signing on August 2, 1776, a month after its formal adoption, printed copies of ______________ were distributed widely
The Declaration of Independence was predominantly written by _____________.
postwar land grant
Soldiers who enlisted in the Continental army for the duration of the war were granted _______________.
In August 1776, the British sent ______________ mercenary soldiers to fight with the British troops
In 1775, the Continental army launched an offensive to capture __________ after losing it to the British during the Seven Years' Wa
Immediately after the battle of Long Island, Washington evacuated his troops to ______________.
the Hudson River
Washington's Christmas victory near ______________ did a great deal to restore the sagging morale of the Continental army
opposed total independence for the colonies
Initially, most of the delegates to the Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress chose George Washington to command the Continental army because he was
statements blaming the king for slavery
Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence only after removal of
The strength of the colonial militias before the Revolutionary War lay in
one-hundred-acre land grant
To raise a strong army for the long term, soldiers who committed for the duration of the war against the British were promised a
cooking, washing and nursing
Women served in the Continental army, taking charge of
could not serve in the Continental army
As commander in chief, George Washington ruled that black Americans
intrusive exercise of excessive and arbitrary power
Committees of correspondence in patriot communities dismayed loyalists by their
demonstrated their patriotism
During the Revolutionary War, many white women|
Tories were afraid of
The most visible and dedicated loyalists in the Revolutionary War were very seldom
its large size
In the 1777 campaign, a major weakness of General John Burgoyne's army was
isolate New England from the rest of the colonies
The goal of the British strategy in 1777, which began with Burgoyne's capture of Fort Ticonderoga, was to
After the second battle of Saratoga, General Burgoyne
the French Navy
The most crucial support the French provided to the American side in the Revolutionary War was
King George III
After the French entered the Revolutionary War in 1778, one of the few British leaders wishing to continue the conflict was
Georgia and South Carolina
In its southern campaign, the British army quickly subdued
Benedict Arnold furnished information about American troop movements and supplies
The British army's strategy worked in 1780 in part because
not officially recognized as players in the war
In the peace treaty that ended the Revolutionary War, Indians were
the Brittish monarchy was an absurd institution
Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense argued that
The document "A Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms," justifying the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, was first drafted by
The continental dollars used to fund the 1775 military buildup were backed by
The battle of Bunker Hill, the bloodiest of the entire Revolutionary War, was a victory for the
enthusiastic but undisciplined
When George Washington arrived in New England to assume command of the Continental army, he found the troops to be
restore sympathetic governments
Britain's task in the war for America was to
Because of the colony's large number of loyalists and geographic advantage, the British strategy focused first on
withdraw north to two critical forts on either side of the Hudson River
After the battle of Long Island, General Washington decided to
the reluctance of the British to follow through when they had a military advantage.
What really saved the American army in 1776 was
supported the Brittish
During the Revolutionary War, many Indians
allowed to keep one-third of her husbands property
When a loyalist husband fled but his wife stayed in the colonies, she was usually
women did not have the independent will to make political decisions.
After the American Revolution, the descendants of some refugee loyalists sued to regain confiscated property that had entered the family through the mother's line of inheritance on the grounds that
rising prices, a brisk black market, and an increase in debt
Shortly after the Continental Congress began to print money, depreciating currency led to
In September 1777, proposals for a negotiated settlement were rejected by
provided defective food, clothing, and gunpowder.
Continental army suppliers often
American capture, held, and killed friendly chiefs
The Americans lost the support of Delaware and Shawnee Indians because the
preferred to work out an alliance and possible land concessions
Indians who supported the American side in the Revolution did so because they
crops, tobacco, rice, indigo
One reason Britain focused on retaining the South was that the region had valuable
a guerrilla war
In South Carolina, the response to Gates's defeat at Camden and Benedict Arnold's treason was
the arrival of the French fleet in the Chesapeake Bay
The fate of General Cornwallis and his troops at the battle of Yorktown was all but sealed by
after the signing of the Treaty of Paris
The British began their evacuation of New York
In 1764, in an effort to generate income for England, George Grenville initiated the
participating in non consumption agreements
The Daughters of Liberty urged women to participate in public affairs and protest the Townshend duties by
the debt had doubled since William Pitt took office
What effect did the Seven Years' War have on England's national debt?
promising freedom to defecting, able-bodied slaves who would fight for the British
Following the battles of Lexington and Concord, Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation
generate increased revenue to pay the salaries of royal governors and judges—a reminder of Parliament's taxation and legislative powers.
Dissenting colonists believed that the real goal of the Tea Act of 1773 was to
was an internal tax that few colonists could escape
An important difference between the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act was that the latter
burning an effigy of a stamp collector, breaking windows, and ransacking an official's home
American opposition to the Stamp Act took the form of
had been disdainful of and abusive toward American colonial soldiers.
Following the war, colonists complained that the British military
a dispute between Indians, Virginians, Pennsylvanians, and the French over territory in the Ohio Valley
The Seven Years War resulted from
nolt approved by the colonies or by England
The Albany Plan of Union, as proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson, was
repealed the act but reaffirmed parliamentary power by passing the Declaratory Act.
In response to the colonial reaction to the Stamp Act, the British government
realized the seriousness of the situation and requested twenty thousand additional troops from England
Early in 1775, as royal authority collapsed in Massachusetts, General Thomas Gage
enforce a staggered and limited boycott of trade
The First Continental Congress created the Continental Association, whose purpose was to
the members of the House of Commons represented all British subjects, wherever they were
George Grenville claimed that Americans had "virtual representation" because
a law closing Boston harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for
The Coercive Acts, passed by Parliament to punish Massachusetts, was included
dumping thousands of pounds of tea in the Boston harbor
ostonian reaction to the Tea Act culminated in December of 1773 with the
their liberites were insecure
The Coercive Acts (or Intolerable Acts) spread alarm among the colonists, who feared that
The Virginia Resolves, authored by Patrick Henry of Virginia, were a response to the
placed new duties on imported items such as tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters' colors.
In 1767, Charles Townshend enacted the Revenue Act, which
asserted Parliament's right to legislate for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever."
The Declaratory Act showed Britain's refusal to compromise on Parliament's power to tax because it
It was over in minutes, and the British regiments were then moved to an island in the harbor for their protection.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770?
their ability to have decisive impact on politics
The Sons of Liberty, protestors against the Stamp Act, organized a large demonstration that showed colonists
England receiving lands east of the Mississippi River, and Spain receiving lands west of the Mississippi River
The terms of the Treaty of Paris included
gave Roman Catholic Quebec control of the Ohio Valley
The Quebec Act affronted many Americans because it
By 1769, merchants from New England to Charleston were supporting the boycott
Which of the following statements best characterizes the effects of the colonial boycott of British goods (nonimportation agreements) of 1768-1769?
because he was ordered to quell the dissenters before they became more organized.
General Gage planned a surprise attack on an ammunition storage site in Concord
prevent colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains.
The Proclamation of 1763 was meant to
denied Parliament's right to tax and legislate for the colonies but acknowledged its authority to regulate their trade
The First Continental Congress
writing poetry about freedom for slaves
Northern slave Phillis Wheatley used bitter sarcasm in a 1774 newspaper essay exposing the hypocrisy of local slave owners; her accomplishments included
"committees of correspondence"
The Gaspée incident of 1772 caused many towns in Massachusetts and in other colonies to set up a communications network of standing committees known as
Europeans became a dominant minority in a society stratified by race and social origin.
Like many other European colonies in the New World, New Spain developed a pattern of social organization in which
the Seven cities of Cibola
When Francisco Vásquez de Coronado ventured into the Southwest and Great Plains of North America, he was searching for
the east Indies
When Columbus first arrived in the New World, he believed he was in
associate plantation labor with African slavery
By the 1460s, the Portuguese used African slaves to work sugar plantations on the Cape Verde Islands and became the first nation to
St. Augestine, FL
The first permanent European settlement within what would become the United States was
consolidate the largest empire in Europe and to fight religious wars with Protestants and Muslims.
The grandson of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain became King Charles I in 1516. He and his successors used the wealth of New Spain to
destroying the monopoly that Mediterranean merchants had on Asian marketplaces
A sea route to Asia impacted Europe in important ways, greatly influencing exploration and
They farmed, knew how to build boats, and held religious beliefs.
The Tainos shared which of the following traits with the Europeans?
tens of thousands of Indian allies who favored the destruction of Mexico.
Hernán Cortés was eventually able to defeat the Mexicans in 1521 by enlisting the help oftens of thousands of Indian allies who favored the destruction of Mexico
The first European nation to attempt to break the Italian monopoly on trade with the Far East in the fifteenth century was
exposed Indians to devastating Old World diseases
Contact and trade between the peoples of the Old and New Worlds
The transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas between the New World and Europe is referred to as the
After 1540, the most important economic activity in New Spain from the Spanish viewpoint was
A new social class was made up of children who were born in the Spanish New World to parents who had emigrated from Spain, referred to as
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvars Cabral accidentally made landfall on the coast of
served as a model for future colonization and made Spain the most powerful nation in Europe.
Hernán Cortés's dominance over Mexico was most significant because it
developed a vessal known as the caravel
In order to adapt to the demands of longer ocean voyages, the Portuguese
saw the behavior in terms of a greater fear—that the Spanish bureaucracy was losing control over the encomenderos
When Catholic priests such as Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas complained to the Spanish government about the brutal treatment of Indians, royal officials
astrolabe and the compass.
Some of the scientific and technological advances that aided European explorers by 1400 included the
the discoveries of Columbus, Balboa, and Vespucci proved there was a continent that existed separate from Europe and Asia
In the early 1500s, Martin Waldseemüller was among the very first to understand that
John Cabot was sponsored by the English monarch to search for a "Northwest Passage" to the Indies. Which area did he manage to reach and claim for England?
technological advances in navigational instruments and monarchs who hoped to enlarge their realms, enrich their dynasties, and magnify their power and prestige
Factors that encouraged exploration and territorial expansion included
drew an imaginary line down the Atlantic Ocean—territory west of the line belonged to Spain, and territory east of the line belonged to Portugal.
The Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal in 1494
The largest treasure found in the New World before 1540 was held by the
reducing the autonomy and power of the old conquistadors
In 1549, the Spanish government issued the repartimiento,
eased pressure on food resources and created greater opportunities for advancement
While it was catastrophic that the bubonic plague killed about a third of Europe's population, it was beneficial in that it one major long-term consequence is that it
. The lack of natives created a labor shortage that led to the purchase of African slaves.
The deaths of millions of Indians affected Spain
reward conquistadors who had conquered territory in the New World.
The Spanish introduced encomienda as a way to
Spaniards were superior to Indians.
The system of coerced labor in New Spain grew directly out of Spaniards' assumption that
Which of the following countries first navigated a sea route from Europe to Asia?