Human Biology Chapter 4

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Tissue

composed of specialized cells of the same type that perform a common function in the body

the 4 major tissue types are:

1.connective
2.muscular
3.cardiac
4.epithelial

What connective tissue does..

-establishes a structural framework for the body(cartilage/bone)
-transports fluids/dissolved materials from 1 region of the body to the other
-stores energy especially in the form of lipids
-defends body from invasion of microorganisms

tendon

cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bone

ligament

resemble tendons but connect bone to bone

cartilage

supportive connective tissue found in:
nose, ends of long bones,ribs.outer ear,backbone, cushion in the knee joint

bone

most rigid supportive connective tissue

blood

fluid connective tissue.
-consists of formed elements(cells-rbc,platelets)&plasma.
-flows through blood vessels
-transports nutrients/oxygen to tissue fluid(eliminating co2 carbon dioxide/wastes)
-distributes heat
-plays a role in fluid ion&ph balance

lymph

fluid connective tissue.
(interstitial fluid-between tissues)-a clear fluid derived from the fluids surrounding the tissues.
-has wbc antibodies
-absorb excess tissue fluid/ fat molecules from the small intestine

adipose tissue

fat tissue.
-cells are crowded&each is filled with liquid fat.
-body uses stored (long term) fat for energy/ insulation/organ protection/cushons

Muscular Tissue

-composed of cells called muscular fibers. striated.
-3types of vertebrate muscle tissue:
1.skeletal muscle-helps in moving the blood in the vessels in 1 direction. Attached by tendons to bones of the skeleton.
Contractions are under voluntary control.

2. Smooth(visceral)muscle- involuntary. found in the walls of the viscera(intestine/bladder/internal organs/blood vessels). Constricts blood. ex. bladder contractions in the urethra.

3. Cardiac Muscle- striated. Found on <3 walls. Contraction pumps blood/ accounts for <3beat. Involuntary contractions.

Nerve Tissue

consists of nerve cells called neurons&neurogia which support &nourish the neurons. Involved in sensory input, integration of nerve signals&motor output.

Epithelial Tissue

Called Epithelium. Lines the lungs. consists of tightly packed cells that form a continuous layer. Covers surfaces& lines body cavities. Functions include: secretion, absorption,excretion,filtration, protection.

2Types of layering:
1. Simple&stratified-1layer-fragile
2.stratified epithelium-2+layers of cells

3Cell shapes:
1.squamous-flat/thin/irregular storage
2.cuboidal
3.columnar-longer

Integumentary System

Skin. Homeostatic functions- protects underlying tissue from physical trauma, pathogen invasion,water loss.
-regulates body temp.
-contains sensory receptors (touch/temp) that make us aware of the surroundings. Accessory organs include hair/nails.

Cardio(circulatory) system

transports cells/dissolved materials including nutrients,wastes,gasses.
<3-propels blood/maintains blood pressure.
blood vessels-arteries,capillaries,veins which distribute blood around the body.
blood-transports oxygen,co2,blood cells. Delivers nutrients & hormones. Removes waste products& assists in temp. regulation/disease defense.

lymthatic&immune systems

lymph system consists of:lymph vessels/nodes.(keeps blood volume constant).
Collects excess tissue fluid returning to blood/absorbs fat from digestive system.
Purifying lymph/storing lymphocytes which are wbc that produce antibodies.
The immune system consist of all the cells in the body that protect us form disease like lymphocytes

Digestive System

Recieves food&digests it into nutrient molecules which can enter the cells of the body. Eliminates non digested remains. Consists of:mouth,esphagus,stomach,sm/lg intestine.
Collects nutrients to carry to blood

Respiratory System

-Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air/circulating blood.
-Brings in h2o&removes co2.
-gas exchange within lungs between air&blood-alveoli

Urinary System

Homeostasis.(regulates internal environment).
Kidney-involved in formation of urine/regulation of blood, ph &ion connection
Ureters-conduct urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
Urinary bladder-stores urine for eventual elimination
*main function: rid the body of metabolic waste/esp. nitrogenous waste

Skeletal System

Protects body parts.
Skull-encases brain/ ribs-cage the heart&lungs/
-helps move the body because it serves as a place of attachment for skeletal muscle
-produces blood cells within bone marrow

Muscular System

SKELETAL muscle- maintain posture&assist in movement of the body/parts.
CARDIAC muscle- contractions for <3beat
SMOOTH muscle- contractions in the walls of internal organs is responsible for function.
*muscle contractions release heat which helps warm the body

Nervous System

Consists of the brain, spinal cord,associated nerves.
Nerves conduct nerve impulses from sensory receptors to the brain/spinal cord-response to external&internal stimuli.
Coordinated & regulates function of the bodys other system/directs immediate response to stimuli

Endocrine System

Consists of grands that secrete hormones(chemical messengers)into bloodstream. Directs long-term changes in other organ systems. Ex. maintains functioning of male/female reproductive organs

Reproductive System

Male- consists of tests,glands(ex.prostate), ducts that conduct semen through the penis. Testes produce sex cells called sperm

Female-consists of the ovaries,oviducts,uterus,vagina&external genitals. Ovaries produce sex cells called eggs.

*fertilized egg&sperm result in the development of offspring

Homeostasis

Body's ability to maintain a relative constancy internal environment by adjusting its physiological processes even while external conditions may change dramatically.
Internal condition has 2parts:blood&tissue fluid-fluid bathes the body's cells. Blood delivers oxygen&nutrients to the tissues through the tissue fluids&carries carbon dioxide/wastes away from the tissues the same way.

Homeostatic Mechanisms consist of 3 parts

1.receptor-sensor that is sensitive to a particular environmental change or stimulus.
2.control center- integration center. recieves & processes information supplied by receptor
3.Effector-cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center & whose activity either opposite or enhances the stimulus

Negative feedback-ex. maintaining body's internal temperature-96.8
Positive feedback- increase change in the same direction as the stimulus. Ex. child birth

_____ tissues cover external body surfaces/line cavities&have secretory functions:

Epithelial

___tissues detect &coordinate information(signals) about environmental changes&control responses to those changes...

nervous

integrating center...

brain

response that REVERSES a altered condition...

negative feedback

effectors...

muscles and glands

chain of events that intensifies the original condition...

positive feedback

NOT a function of integumentary system...

serves as a blood reservoir

Correct sequence of events in the circulation of blood...

heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, heart

in the pulmonary circuit, the ____ half of the heart pumps_____blood to capillary beds inside the lungs, then____ blood flows back to the heart.

right, deoxygenated, oxygenated

diffusion...

capillaries

passageway of blood away from heart...

arteries

transport, blood volume reservoirs...

veins

blood transport and pressure regulation...

arterioles

in negative feedback mechanisms...

the response tends to return internal operating conditions to the original state

The lymphatic system helps maintain blood volume by:

collecting excess tissue fluid and returning it to blood

cardiac muscle differs from skeletal muscle in that the cardiac muscle:

is involuntary

NOT a type of epithelial tissue:

bone and cartilage

Skeletal system functions in:

blood cell production, mineral storage, movement,

___is a dense fibrous connective tissue that joins bone to bone

ligament

the functional unit of the nervous system is a :

neuron

which of the following allows rapid change and does not achieve stability?

positive feedback

____epithelium is frequently found in glands.

cuboidal

Axons, dendrites and a cell body are characteristics of cells located in:

nervous tissue

Intercalated discs and pacemaker cells are characteristics of:

cardiac muscle tissue

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