Essential Words for GRE - Part 1 - by k065167

999 terms by k065167

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abate

(v) to become less strong, to make something less strong.

ex: the storm showed no signs of abating.

abatement

(n), a reduction in the intensity or amount of something

de facto

(adj) existing as a fact although it may not be legally accepted as existing.

ex: the general took the de facto control of the country.

chieftain

(n) CAPTAIN, the leader of a group of people
(n) HEADMAN, the head of a tribe or clan

aberrant

(adj) not usual or not socially acceptable, markedly different from an accepted norm

ex: One aberrant gene has already been linked to other social disorders.

aberration

(n) a fact, an action, or a way of behaving that is not usual, and that may be not socially accepted.

ex: a childless woman was regarded as an aberration, almost a social outcast.

abeyance

(n) temporary cessation or suspension, a temporary halt to something, with the emphasis on "temporary."

ex: a good judge must hold his or her judgement IN ABEYANCE until all the fact in a case have been presented.

abject

(adj) terrible and without hope, pitiful and miserable.
ex: the novel portrays the abject poverty of many people during the Great Depression.

(adj) without any pride or respect in yourself

abjure

(v) to RENOUNCE, to ABANDON, to promise publicly that you will give up or reject a belief or a way of behaving.

ex: they abjure the use of violence to settle disputes between nations.

abscission

(n) the act of cutting something off
ex: If you are a public speaker who habitually cuts yourself off, your speeches may suffer from abscission.

(n) shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant.
ex: When an apple ripens and then falls off a tree, it's called an abscission.

abscise

(v) remove or separate by abscission.
ex: the surgeon abscised a small growth on the patient's hand.

(v) shed flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of a scar tissue

abscond

(v) to escape FROM a place that you're not allowed to leave without permission.
ex: she absconded FROM every children's home they placed her in.

(v) to leave secretly and take with you something, especially money, that does not belong to you.
ex: he absconded WITH the company funds.

abstemious

(adj) moderate in appetite, not allowing yourself to have much food or alcohol, or do things that are enjoyable.

ex: people with an abstemious lifestyle tend to live longer than people who indulge their appetites.

appetite

(n) physical desire for food.
ex: he suffered from headaches and loss of appetite.

(n) a strong desire for something.
ex: the public have an insatiable appetite for scandal.

appetizer

(n) a small amount of food or drink that you have before a meal.

ex: some green olives make a simple appetizer.

appetizing

(adj) (of food,...) that smells or looks attractive, making you feel hungry or thirsty.

ex: the appetizing aroma of sizzling bacon.

abstinence

(n) the practice of not allowing yourself something, especially food, alcoholic drinks or sex, for moral, religious or health reasons.

ex: the monk's vow of abstinence includes all intoxicating substances.

amass

(v) to ACCUMULATE, to collect something, especially in large quantities.

ex: he amassed a fortune from silver mining.

liquor

(n) strong alcoholic drink
ex: the alcoholic's physician recommended total abstinence from liquor for her patient.

(n) any alcoholic drink
ex: the sale of liquor to persons under 18 is prohibited.

treason

(n) the crime of doing something that could cause danger to you country, such as helping its enemies during a war.

abysmal

(adj) TERRIBLE, extremely bad or of very low standard.

ex: the abysmal failure of the free market system in Russia.

accretion

(n) a layer of a substance that is slowly added to something.
ex: stalactites form from an accretion of limestone and other minerals.

(n) the process of a new layers being slowly added to something.

igneous

(adj) (geology) formed when magma becomes solid, especially after it has poured out of a volcano.
ex: An igneous rock is one that forms through intense, fiery heat--usually in a volcano. It starts out molten (so hot it melts into liquid), then solidifies as it cools. So, it's rock that has "ignited."

(adj) (geology) relating to the formation of rocks by solidification from a molten state.

accrue

(v) to accumulate, to grow by additions, to increase over a period of time.

ex: economic benefits accruing TO the country FROM tourism.

accrual

(n) the act of accumulating.

ex: the accrual of interest.

monopoly

(n) (business) the complete control of trade in particular goods or the supple of a particular service; A type of goods or a service controlled in this way.
ex: electricity, gas and water were considered to be natural monopolies.

(n) the complete possession or use of something; A thing that belongs only to one person or group and that other people cannot share.
ex: a good education should not be the monopoly of the rich.

monopolize

(v) to take control of the largest part of something so that other people are prevented from sharing it.
ex: men traditionally monopolized jobs in the printing industry.

(v) to take a large part of someone's attention or time so that they're unable to speak or deal with other people.

monopolist

(n) a person or a company that has the complete control of trade in particular goods or the supple of a particular service;

monopolistic

(adj) controlling or trying to get complete control over something, especially an industry or a company.

adamant

(adj) DETERMINED, uncompromising, unyielding, not to change your mind or to be persuaded about something.

ex: Eva was adamant that she would not come.

adjunct

(n) a thing added or attached to something larger or more important
ex: speed walking and marathons are regarded as adjuncts of track and field athletics since races in these sports are not normally held on a track.

(n) (grammar) an adverb or a phrase that adds meaning to the verb in a sentence

admonish

(v) to SCOLD, to tell someone firmly that you don't approve of something they have done.
ex: she as admonished for chewing gum in class.

(v) to strongly advice someone to do something.
ex: the judge admonished the jury to discount testimony that had been ruled inadmissible.

testimony

(n) a thing showing that something else exists or is true.
ex: the pyramid are an eloquent testimony to the ancient Egyptian's engineering skills.

(n) a formal written or spoken statement saying what you know to be true, usually in a court.
ex: her claim was supported by the testimony of several witnesses.

unscrupulous

(adj) UNPRINCIPLED, without principles, not honest or fair.

ex: the unscrupulous company sells an adulterated version of the drug.

proponent

(n) an ADVOCATE, a person who supports an idea or course of action.

doctrine

(n) a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a a Church, a political party,...

ex: he was deeply committed to the political doctrines of social equality.

doctrinal

(adj) relating to a belief or set of beliefs held and taught by a a Church, a political party,...

ex: a rigid doctrinal approach.

doctrinaire

(adj) (disapproving) strictly following a theory in all circumstances, even if there're practical problems or disagreement.

ex: doctrinaire attitudes

aesthete

(n) a person who has a love and understanding of art and beautiful things.

affected

(adj) (of a person or their behavior) not natural or sincere.

ex: it has been argued that the emphasis on so-call "proper English" leads to unnatural and affected speech.

affectation

(n) behavior or an action that is not natural or sincere and usually intended to impress other people.

ex: his little affections irritated her.

affinity

(n) a natural connection, a strong feeling that you understand something or someone,
ex: humans have a special affinity FOR/WITH dolphins

(n) a close relationship between two people or things that have similar qualities, structures or features.
ex: there's a close affinity BETWEEN Italian and Spanish.

mar

(v) to RUIN, to damage or spoil something good.

ex: the game was marred by the behavior of drunken fans.

dictum

(n) a statement expressing something that people believe is always true or should be followed.

ex: the dictum that "In politics, there are no friendships"

aggrandize

(v) to make larger or greater, to add detail to, to increase the power or reputation of something

ex:If you are a window washer, but you refer to yourself as a "vista enhancement specialist," then you are aggrandizing your job title — that is, making it sound greater than it is.

aggrandizement

(n) the act of increasing the wealth or prestige or power or scope of something.
ex: It's hard sometimes to tell if politicians run for office in order to help their communities, or just for their own aggrandizement.

(n) an increase in the power or importance of a person or country.
ex: he was a strong and greedy monarch who pursued a course of military aggrandizement from the beginning of this reign.

alacrity

(n) liveliness and eagerness, great willingness or enthusiasm.

ex: Someone with alacrity shows cheerful willingness and eager behavior, like a kid whose mother has told him he can buy anything in a candy store.

alchemy

(n) (literary) a mysterious power or magic that can change things, a seemingly magical process of transmutation.
ex: no one could understand the mysterious alchemy that caused two people as different from one another as Rob and Barbara to fall in love

(n) a form of chemistry studied in the Middle Ages which involved trying to change ordinary metals into gold.

allay

(v) to assuage, to mollify, to alleviate, to lessen, to ease, to soothe, to make something, especially a feeling, less strong.

ex: His poor little hands were wrapped in cotton-wool steeped in morphia, to allay the pain.

alleviate

(v) to EASE, to make something less severe.

ex: one of the weaknesses of capitalism is that, although it's very efficient at increasing absolute wealth, it's not as successful at alleviating relative poverty.

alleviation

the act of reducing something unpleasant (as pain or annoyance)

ex: the alleviation of poverty.

disparage

(v) to BELITTLE, to suggest that someone or something is not important or valuable.

ex: I don't mean to disparage your achievements.

disparagement

(n) the act of belittling somebody or something.

ex: he spoke of his colleagues with disparagement.

alloy

(n) a metal formed by mixing two types of metal together, or by mixing metal with another substance.

ex: Brass in an alloy of copper and zinc.

alloy

(v) to make one metal with another, especially one of lower value.

incentive

(n) something that encourages you to do something.

ex: they often use the allure of their country's vast market as an incentive for other countries to pursue policies in accordance with theirs.

incentivize

(v) to encourage someone to behave in a particular way by offering them a reward.

ex: the government wants to incentivize people to switch to greener cars.

allure

(n) the quality of being attractive and exciting.

ex: the allure of the big city.

alluring

(adj) attractive and exciting in a mysterious way.

lobby

(n) a group of people who try to influence politicians on a particular issue

(n) a group whose members share certain goals and work to bring about the passage, modification, or defeat of laws that affect these goals; an attempt organized by this group.

lobby

(v) to try to influence a politician or the government and persuade them to support or oppose a change in the law.

ex: women's groups are lobbying to get more money for children.

entice

(v) to persuade someone to do something, usually by offering them something.

ex: try and entice the child TO eat by offering small portions of their favorite food.

enticement

the act of persuading someone to do something, usually by offering them something.

ex: the party is offering low taxation as its main enticement.

enticing

(adj) so attractive and interesting that you want to have it or know more about it.

ex: an enticing smell came from the kitchen.

amalgamate

(v) to MERGE, to join two or more things together.
ex: this information will amalgamated with clues obtained earlier.

(v) (of two organizations) to MERGE, to join together to form one large organization.
ex: they decided to amalgamate the two schools.

buddhism

a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha

celestial

(adj) of the sky or of heaven.

ex: What is the difference between a celestial being and a celestial body? The first is something living such as an alien or an angel, whereas the latter is an inanimate object such as a star or a planet. Both, however, are from the sky.

terrestrial

(adj) (of animals and plants) living on the land or on the ground, rather than in waters, trees or the air.

(adj) connected with the planet Earth

(adj) (of television and broadcasting systems) operating on earth rather than from a satellite.

extraterrestrial

(adj) connected with life existing outside the planet Earth.
ex: extraterrestrial beings.

(n) a creature that comes from another planet.

ambivalent

(adj) having conflicting emotional attitudes, showing both good and bad feelings about something.

ex: she seems to feel ambivalent ABOUT/TOWARDS her new job.

ambivalence

(n) the state of having conflicting emotional attitudes or showing both good and bad feelings about something.

ex: there was ambivalence among church members about women becoming priests.

ambrosia

(n) something that is very pleasant to eat
(n) (in ancient Greek and Roman history) the food of the gods.

ambrosial

(adj) (of food) extremely pleasing to the taste, very delicious.

ex: the food critic praised the chief for preparing what he called an "ambrosial meal".

ameliorate

(v) to make something better.

ex: Food drives can ameliorate hunger. Aspirin can ameliorate a headache. A sympathy card can ameliorate grief. Family therapy can ameliorate severe sibling rivalry. Anything that can lift a burden can ameliorate.

amelioration

(v) the act of making something better.

amenable

(adj) (of people) easy to control, willing to be influenced by something.
ex:
- They had three very amenable children.
-The young writer is amenable to suggestions for improving her prose style to make it more interesting.

amenity

(n) a feature that makes a place pleasant, comfortable or easy to live in.

ex: many houses lacked even basic amenities such as baths, showers and hot water.

amulet

(n) a piece of jewelry worn by some people because they think it protects them from bad luck, illness,...

(n) an ornament worn as a charm against evil spirits.

anachronism

(n) something that seems old-fashioned and does not belong to the present.
ex: the monarchy is seen by many people as an anachronism in the modern world.

(n) something that is placed, for example in a book or a play, in the wrong period of history.
ex: the book is full of anachronisms which suggests there were parts rewritten in later centuries.

anachronistic

(adj) old-fashioned and does not belong to the present.

ex: the costumes were anachronistic for a Victorian play.

analgesic

(n) (medical) PAINKILLER, a substance that reduces pain.

ex: Aspirin is still one of the most effective medicines available to alleviate pain, fever, and inflammation.

analogous

(adj) similar in some way to another thing and therefore able to be compared with it.

ex: the psychology researcher's experiment postulates that the brain is analogous to a digital computer.

analogy

(n) a similarity in some ways between things that are otherwise dissimilar.
ex: the teacher drew an analogy between the human heart and a pump.

(n) a comparison of between two things that have similar features.

analogue

(n) a thing that is similar to another thing in some way.

ex: scientists are attempting to compare features of extinct animals with living analogues.

analogue

(adj) (of a clock or watch) showing the time using hands, not with a display of numbers.

ex: digital watches are more advanced than analogue ones.

misconstrue

(v) MISINTERPRET, to understand someone's words or actions wrongly. (originates from the words mis-, meaning "wrong," and construe, meaning "construction.")

ex: it's easy to misconstrue confidence as arrogance.

construe

(v) to INTERPRET, to understand in a particular way the meaning of a word, a sentence, or an action.

ex: her words could hardly be construed AS an apology.

scant

(adj) hardly any, not very much, not as much as there should be.

ex: the firefighters went back into the house with scant regard for their own safety.

scanty

(adj) too little in amount for what is needed
ex: details of his life are scanty

(adj) (of clothes) very small and not covering much of your body.
ex: a scanty bikini

scantily

(adj) in a sparse or scanty way

ex: scantily dressed models.

posit

(v) to POSTULATE, to suggest or accept that something is true so that it can be used as the basis for an argument or discussion.

ex: most religious posit the existence of life after death.

Confucius

Chinese philosphere and teacher; his beliefs,known as Confucianism greatly influenced Chinese life

confucian

(n) relating to or characteristic of Confucianism
(n) a believer in the teachings of Confucius

anarchy

(n) a situation in which a country, an organization,... has no official government, order or control.

ex: the overthrow of the military regime was followed by a period of anarchy.

anarchic

(adj) lacking order, law or control.

ex: it had become a lawless, anarchic city in which corruption thrived.

anarchism

(n) the political belief that laws and government are not necessary.

anarchist

a person who believes that laws and governments are not necessary.

tenable

(adj) (of a theory, an opinion,...) evidence-based and well-founded, easy to defend against attack or criticism.

ex: most political scientists don't believe anarchism to be a tenable theory of government.

(adj) (of a job, position) that can be held for a period of time.

antithesis

(n) the opposite of something.

ex: the antithesis of the principle of art for art's sake is social realism, which feels a heavy responsibility to identify, and even ameliorate, social ills.

deficit

(n) (economics) the amount by which money spent or owed is greater than money earned in a period of time.
ex: the economist drew an analogy between a family spending beyond its means and a government running a deficit.

(n) the amount by which something, especially an amount of money, is too small or smaller than something else.
ex: there's a deficit of $3 million in the total needed to complete the project.

overthrow

(v) to remove by force a leader or a government from a position of power.

ex: a group of anarchists called for the overthrow of the government.

overthrow

(n) the act of taking power by force from a leader or government.

anodyne

(adj) BLAND, unlikely to cause disagreement or offend anyone, not expressing strong opinions.
ex: some people use alcohol an an anodyne to numb their emotional pain.

(n) PAINKILLER, a medicine or something that calms or soothes pain.

platitude

(n) (disapproving) a comment or statement that has been made very often before and is therefore not interesting.

ex: a political speech full of platitudes and empty promises.

platitudinous

(adj) (disapproving) dull and tiresome but with pretensions of significance or originality; that has been made very often before and is therefore not interesting.

ex: shallow feelings and platitudinous remarks.

anomaly

(n) deviation from the norm, a thing or situation different from what is normal or expected.

ex: the apparent anomaly that those who produced the wealth, the workers, were the poorest.

anomalous

(adj) different from what is normal or expected.

ex: he's in an anomalous position as the only part-time worker in the firm.

antecedent

(n) a thing or event that exists or comes before another thing or event, and may have influenced it.

(n) antecedentS (plural) = ancestors, the people in someone's family who lived a long time ago.

(n) (grammar) a word or phrase to which the following word refers.

antecedent

(adj) PREVIOUS, that exists or comes before another thing or event, and may have influenced it.

antediluvian

(adj) very old-fashioned, so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period.
ex: You may laugh at your parents' antediluvian ideas of what's proper for going out on a date.

(adj) prehistoric, of or relating to the period before the biblical flood.

endeavor

(n) an attempt to do something new or difficult.

ex: the manager is expected to use his best endeavors to promote the artist's career.

endeavor

(v) to STRIVE, to try very hard to do something.

ex: I will endeavor to do my best for my country.

protagonist

(n) the main character in a play, film/movie or book.
ex: A novel, movie, or play might have many main characters, but it can really only have one protagonist — or maybe two in the case of, say, Romeo and Juliet.

(n) one of the main people in a real event, especially a competition, battle or struggle.
ex: Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis were the protagonists of the U.S. Civil War.

apathy

(n) the feeling of not being interested in or enthusiastic about something, or things in general.

ex: Apathy was high in the election because there was no major controversy or issue to arouse voter interest.

apathetic

(adj) showing no interest or enthusiasm.

ex: one criticism of the welfare state is that it makes people overly reliant on the government and therefore take a apathetic and detached view of politics.

apogee

(n) the highest point of something, where it's greatest or most successful.
ex: the Ottoman Empire reached its apogee in the seventeenth century.

(n) (astronomy) the point in the orbit of an object in space when it's furthest from the planet around which it turns.

apothegm

(n) a short instructive saying that's easy to remember and sometimes even slightly witty, like "haste makes waste.". An apothegm often expresses a fundamental truth or general rule.

ex: one of the best known political apothegms was written by British historian Lord Acton: "power tend to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely"

appease

(disapproving)
(v) to make someone calmer or less angry by giving them what they want.

(v) to give a country what it wants in order to avoid war.

appeasement

(n) the act of making someone calmer or less angry by giving them what they want; or giving a country what it wants in order to avoid war.

ex: a policy of appeasement.

regime

(n) a method or system of organizing or managing something.
ex: our tax regime is one of the most favourable in Europe.

(n) a method or system of government, especially one that has not been elected in a fair way.
ex: an oppressive regime.

regimen

(n) a set of rules about food and exercise or medical treatment that you follow to stay healthy or to improve your health.

ex: a daily regimen of exercise.

appellation

(n) a name or a title.

ex:Mark Twain is the famous appellation by which everyone remembers author and humorist Samuel Clemens.

appellative

(adj) relating to the giving of a name

apposite

(adj) strikingly relevant, very appropriate for a particular situation or in relation to something.

ex: the writer searched two dictionaries and a thesaurus before finding a perfectly apposite word he was looking for.

apprise

(v) to tell or inform someone of something.

ex: the biography keeps the readers apprised of the racism black Americans had to endure.

approbation

(n) approval or agreement.

ex: Remember that probation is a testing period, to see if you can be good. Approbation means it's all good.

appropriate

(v) to take something, someone's idea,... for your own use, especially illegally or without permission.
ex: the invading army appropriated supplies from the houses of local people.

(v) to take or give something, especially money, for a particular purpose.
ex: five million dollars have been appropriated for research into the disease.

appropriation

(n) the act of taking something that belongs to someone else, especially without permission.

ex: the film company sued them over their appropriation of a cartoon character.

appropriation

(n) the act f keeping or saving money for a particular purpose.
ex: a meeting to discuss the appropriation of funds.

(n) a sum of money to be used for a particular purpose, especially by a government or company.
ex: an appropriation of $20000 FOR payment of debt.

apropos

(preposition) relevant, concerning or related to something / someone.
ex: Apropos of my interest in fishing, my grandfather gave me his set of championship lures, rods, reels and lucky tackle box.

apropos of nothing

the expression which is a glib way of saying "Oh, and by the way..." , used to conveniently change the subject of a conversation.

ex: Apropos of nothing, the speaker declared that the purpose of life is to love.

arabesque

(n) (in art) a type of design where lines wind around each other in intertwining curves.

(n) (in ballet) a position in which the dancer balances on one leg with the other leg lifted and stretched out behind parallel to the ground.
ex: the ballerina stunned the audience with her perfectly executed arabesque.

specimen

(n) a SAMPLE, a small amount of something that shows what the rest of it is like.
ex: astronauts have brought back specimens of rock from the moon.

(n) a single example of something , especially an animal or a plant.
ex: the aquarium has some interesting specimens of unusual tropical fish.

(n) a small amount of blood, urine,... that is taken from someone and tested by a doctor.

ardor

(n) PASSION, very strong feelings or enthusiasm or love.

ex: it's the unknown that excites the ardor of scholars, who, in the known alone, would shrivel up with boredom.

ardent

(adj) PASSIONATE, very enthusiastic and showing strong feelings about someone or something.

ex: an ardent supporter of European unity.

shrivel

(v) to become or make something dry and wrinkled as a result of heat, cold or being cold.

ex: the leaves on the plant had shrivelled UP from lack of water.

arduous

(adj) laborious, extremely difficult, involving lots of effort and energy, especially over a period of time,

ex: an arduous journey across the Andes.

argot

(n) JARGON, words or phrases that are used by a particular group of people and not easily understood by others.

ex: writers of crime fiction often use the argot of criminals and detectives to create a realistic atmosphere.

alienate

(v) to make someone less friendly or sympathetic towards you.
ex: his comments have alienated a lot of young voters.

(v) to make someone feel that they don't belong to a particular group.
ex: very talented children may feel alienated from the others in their class.

alienation

(n) the act of making someone less friendly or sympathetic towards you.
ex: the new policy resulted in the alienation of many votes

(n) the state of making someone feel that they don't belong to a particular group.
ex: many immigrants suffer from a sense of alienation.

artless

(adj) simple, natural and honest.
ex: the artless sincerity of a young child.

(adj) made without art or skill.

ascetic

(adj) not allowing yourself physical pleasures, especially for religious reasons.
(adj) related to a simple and strict way of living.

ex: the monks live a very ascetic life.

ascetic

(n) someone who practices self denial as a spiritual discipline.

ex:Muslim ascetics consider the internal battle against human passions a greater jihad than the struggle against infidels.

asceticism

(n) the doctrine that through renunciation of worldly pleasures it is possible to achieve a high spiritual or intellectual state.

ex: one tradition of asceticism derives from the belief that the body is fundamentally bad and must be subjugated to the soul.

asperity

(n) HARSHNESS, SEVERITY, the fact of being rough or severe in the way you speak to or treat someone.

ex: she pointed out, with some asperity, that it had all been my fault.

aspersion

(n) a disparaging remark, a critical or unpleasant remark or judgement.

ex: Finding out that a field-hockey coach had never played the sports might cast aspersions on her ability to coach it.

assiduous

(adj) DILIGENT, working very hard and taking great care that everything is done as well as it can be.

ex: the assiduous people of Hong Kong live in a territory with one of the highest per capita incomes int the world.

assiduity

(n) great and constant diligence and attention

ex: he work with great assiduity to earn the money for his son's education.

anguish

(n) severe pain, mental suffering or unhappiness.

ex: I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost.

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