Ch. 13 AP Euro (European Society in the Age of the Renaissance)

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Savonarola

A Dominican friar that predicted the French invasion of Florence. Was the leader of Florence after the Medici were overthrown in 1494 however his criticism of the Medici and Pope Alexander VI led to his excommunication and execution. Famous for his "Bonfire of the Vanities".

Mirandola

He was an Italian Renaissance philosopher known for his Oration on the "Dignity of Man". In his works, he expressed the opinion that there were no limits to what man could accomplish.

Pope Julius II

Known as the "Warrior pope." Suppressed the Borgia family and took Romagna from them to be put under papal jurisdiction. Formed 2nd Holy league with Ferdinand, Venice, Max I and Swiss. Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel(along with many others).

Giorgio Vasari

Tuscan writer wrote "Lives of the Artists," a book of biographies of the greatest artists of the Renaissance.

Individualism

A belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence. Became more prevalent during the Renaissance.

Pope Sylvester II

Was born a peasant as Gerbert of Aurillac. , Influence from the Arabian sundial and Chinese knowledge of mechanical clocks allowed him to build the first mechanical clock in Europe. Holy Roman Emperor declared him Pope in 999.

Edward IV

First Yorkist King of England, he re-established some stability in England after overthrowing Henry VI.

Pope Leo X

He was the son of Lorenzo de Medici This Pope sold indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Condemned Luther as an outlaw and a heretic then banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church. Also withdrew from League of Cambrai and employed new Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to get rid of French in Italy which leads to Hapsburg-Valois Wars. Signed Concordat of Bologna with Francis I of France.

Pope Sixtus IV

Most famous for building the Vatican Library and Sistine Chapel which had been planned by his predecessor. He instituted nepotism and corruption as a way of life in Rome, and ran the Papacy as a family operation. In 1478, under pressure from Ferdinand of Aragon he issued the papal bull that established the Spanish Inquisition. He also supported the Pazzi Conspiracy.

Francesco Petrarch

Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.

Titian

A student of Giorgione. The best "colorer guy". Famous for the "Venus of Urbino", Greatest Renaissance painter in Venice, used vivid color and movement, which was the opposite of the subtle colors and static figures in Florentine paintings.

Cosimo de'Medici

Wealthiest Florentine and natural statesman. He internally controlled Florence; behind the scenes. He kept concilors loyal to him in the Signoria. Was head of Office of Public Debt and a patron of the Florentine Platonic Academy. His grandson was Lorenzo il Magnificant.

Sistine Chapel

A chapel adjoining Saint Peter's Basilica, noted for the frescoes of biblical subjects painted by Michelangelo on its walls and ceilings. The Creation is one of the notable subjects of the ceiling paintings, and the judgment day is depicted on the rear wall of the chapel.

Fourth Crusade

Initiated by Pope Innocent III after Saladin's death to conquer Jerusalem. Crusaders instead decided to attack and set up their own government which was called the Latin Empire. Byzantine Empire was restored in 1261 but never fully recovered.

Communes

The most common form of government in the Northern Italian cities. This was a sworn association of seeking political and economic independence from local nobles. Cities included Milan, Florence, Genoa, Siena, and Pisa.

Francesco Sforza

A ruler who conquered the city of Milan and became its new duke after the last Visconti ruler of Milan died. Worked to buid a strong centralized state. By creating an efficient tax system he generated enormous revenues for the government.

Renaissance

The cultural achievements of the 14th through 16th century which began in Italy and gradually influenced society in northern Europe. Rested on the economic and political achievements of the previous centuries.

Papal States

A group of territories in Central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last one - Vatican City —was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.

Popolo

The disenfranchised and heavily taxed citizens of Italian city-states. Used armed force and violence to take over city governments.

Boccaccio

Father of Renaissance novels; his "Decameron" illustrate the lost of spiritual direction of Italy during Black Death.

Sforza

Ruthless family that came to power in Milan in 1450. They were a Condottiere family and they hired mercenaries to control other smaller northern city-states.

Sandro Botticelli

Florentine painter known for vivid colors and a personal style. Painted both mythological works ("The Birth of Venus"(his most famous as it exemplified the female ideal) & "Primavera" or Springtime) & religious works ("The Adoration of the Magi"). He also painted "Portrait of a Young Man.

Donatello

Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature. Sculpted "David" in Bronze.

Signori

Despots of Italian city-states. Emerged when the movement for Republican governments failed in the 13h century and Popolo lost power. Their accession to power was often accomplished peacefully, as most communes were willing to accept repression for a lasting peace.

Oligarchies

The rule of merchant aristocracies and the new urban nobility that along with Signori's controlled much of Italy by 1300.

Charles VIII

French king invited by Sforza family to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon. Wanted to conquer Naples (technically inherited it). He inaugurated a new era in Italian and European power politics. Florentine Piero de Medici's attempt to seek peace lead to the Medici's overthrow and return to republican government. Died by striking his head on a door.

Richard III

He was the last English king from the House of York, and his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth marked the culmination of the Wars of the Roses.

Artemisia Gentileschi

Was an early Italian Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation influenced by Caravaggio. In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the artistic community, she was the first female painter to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence Painted "Judith Slaying Holofernes" and "Esther before Ahasuerus".

Michelangelo

An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Sculpted David and several versions of the "Pietà", painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. Also sculpted Bound Slave ,"Dying Slave" and "Moses" for Pope Julius II's tomb.

League of Cambrai

Formed in 1508 by Louis XII with Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian and Pope Leo X to strip Venice of its mainland possessions.

Erasmus

Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Was born a poor boy and became an orphan before he was forced to join a monastery. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote "Praise of Folly". and "The Education of an English Prince".

Habsburg-Valois Wars

For security reasons, France became embroiled in these conflict that frequently took place in Italy. French King Francis I went to war with Charles V over disputed territories in southern France, the Netherlands, the Rhineland, northern Spain, and Italy. Lasted 23 years and while Charles V was often victorious it prevented him from concentrating on the Lutheran problems in Germany.

Leon Battista Alberti

An accomplished humanist scholar who was a noted architect and builder in Florence. Famous for "Men can do all things if they will." idea of the universal man. Also wrote "On the Family"

Benvenuto Cellini

A goldsmith and sculptor who wrote "Autobiography" which is famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise

Pope Nicholas V

Collected 9 thousand manuscripts and planned the Vatican library. Ended the schism caused by the rivalry between popes and church councils. Initiated the Peace of Lodi in order to end strife in Italy, and he tried to stamp out simony and other corrupt practices in the church. Issued papal bull that allowed Portuguese to subjugate other human beings.

Humanism

First defined by Florentine rhetorician Leonardo Bruni. , A philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance.

On The Dignity of Man

Written by Pico Della Mirandola, this essay suggests that man possesses great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of god before the fall and as Christ after the resurrection.

On Pleasure

Written by Lorenzo Valla. It praises the pleasures of the senses as the highest good.

Princely Courts

By the 15th century this became the place or space where despots or oligarchs lived, conducted business, and displayed their wealth and patronage of the arts.

Lorenzo Valla

Father of Modern historical criticism. Wrote "On Pleasure", and "On the False Donation of Constantine", which challenged the authority of the papacy by showing that the western lands had been claimed by forgery.. Father of modern historical criticism.

On the False Donation of Constantine

Lorenzo Valla's analysis and critique of an 8th century document that established papal authority over western Europe. Papacies jurisdiction over vast territories in western Europe was a forgery.

Pazzi Conspiracy

This plot to overthrow the Medici was even supported by Pope Sixtus IV. An assassination attempt was made during High Mass on at the Cathedral of Florence. Lorenzo's brother, Giuliano, was stabbed 19 times and killed by a gang that included a priest! Lorenzo managed to escape. The people of Florence rallied to the Medici and the conspirators were pursued. Led to a 2-year war between Florence and the papacy. It also increased Lorenzo's power.

Peace of Lodi

Was established in order to balance the alliances between Florence and Milan and the other alliance between Venice and Naples; Led to 40 years of relative peace. Arbitrated by Pope Nicholas V.

Bonfire of the Vanities

Notorious bonfire in Florence in 1497 in which supporters of Savonarola collected and burned thousands of paintings, books, and other temptations to sin in the Piazza della Signoria.

Secularism

Attitude that tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover, rather than in any spiritual or transcendental belief. Rise in Renaissance signified a shift away from the Medieval ideal.

Decameron

Literary work by Boccaccio which was composed of 100 vulgar tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348. A stringing social commentary (sexual/economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior

Gutenberg Bible

A printed version of the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible that was printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany in the fifteenth century.

High Renaissance

Period beginning in the late 15th century, it produced some of the most well-known religious and secular artwork of the period from such figures as Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo. Rome finally took the lead away from Florence as the center of art in Italy.

Lorenzo Ghiberti

Won a contest to design bronze doors for the San Giovanni Baptistry in Florence. The doors were nicknamed "The Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo.

Primavera

Painted by Botticelli; This painting portrays the birth of spring; it shows Cupid, who is Venus's son, Venus who represents April, and the 3 Graces who are Venus's handmaidens; March is represented by Zephyr, the west wind of Spring; MAY is represented by Mercury, the messenger of the gods who uses his staff to keep clouds out of Venus' garden.

Giotto

An Renaissance artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body.

Masaccio

The renaissance artist who led the way in establishing a new style of employing deep space modeling and anatomical correctness in painting. He was the first to use Brunelleschi's linear perspective.

The Courtier

A treatise on education written by Castiglione that sought to train, discipline, and fashion the young man into the courtly ideal, the gentleman

Castiglione

Wrote "The Courtier" which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.

The Prince

A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests. "Combine cunning of fox and ferocity of a lion"

Thomas More

He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote "Utopia", a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. Opposed Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon and was imprisoned and beheaded.

Printing

Stimulated literacy of laypeople during the Renaissance. It also allowed for propaganda and the rise of group consciousness that competed with localized loyalties.

Pietro Aretino

Satirist that used the shock of sex in pornography as a vehicle to criticize in his "Sonnetti Lussuriosi" and Ragionamenti.

Clocks

Were more important in cities during the Renaissance. Led to the idea that the universe could be seen and quantified.

Henry VII

First Tudor king of England after gaining throne by force after the Battle of Bosworth Field from Richard III. Restored order and crafted strong monarchy. He established the Star Chamber for law & order. Frugality freed him of dependence on Parliament - power of which declined. Used marriage in Foreign Affairs with Scotland & Hapsburgs. National feeling consolidated around Tudors.

On the Family

Alberti's treatise on the crisis of the Italian families; a high birth rate racked with a high infant mortality rate that plagued 15th century Italy.

Juan Luis Vives

This Spaniard wrote 'Instruction of the Christian Woman'. Held that a women's sphere should be restrained to the home not the public arena where it would lead to competition with men.

Sir Thomas Smith

English Statesman who wrote 'The English Commonwealth'. Maintained that women should not meddle with the world of men.

Office of the Night

A special magistracy set up by the Florentine government to persecute sodomists and combat sodomy. All members were at least 45 years old and were elected annually. Name comes from the fact that most of these sexual activities occured during the night.

Praise of Folly

Written by Erasmus. Humorous criticism of the most corrupt practices of society at the time. Especially harsh on the abuses within ranks of the clergy. Ridiculed ignorance, superstition, vice among Xians, criticized fasting, religious pilgrimages, and church interpretations of parts of Bible.

Rabelais

France's most popular Renaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age's focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest. Wrote "Gargantua" and "Pantagruel".

Rablelaisian

Marked by gross robust humor, extravagance of caricature, or bold naturalism.

Jan van Eyck

Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting. Painted "The Arlofini Weeding" and the "Ghent Altarpiece".

New Monarchs

The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.

Justinian Code

The body of Roman law collected by order of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian around A.D. 534 based on Rome's 12 tables. Its maxim of "What pleases the prince has the force of law" was used to advance authority in the renaissance.

Charles VII

King of France who was asked by Joan of Arc for an army to save the city of Orleans; doubted her. After the "Hundred Year War" he strengthened finances by instituting the gabelle(salt tax) and taille(land tax) which were the chief source of income until 1789. Published the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges.

gabelle

A salt tax in France. This is an example of one of the ways monarchs could raise money by levying taxes on basic food and clothing.

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

Charles VII's 1438 formal declaration of the independence of the French Church from Rome. Asserted royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy. Rescinded by the Francis's Concordat of Bologna in 1516

Louis XI

French king,nicknamed the "Spider King," manipulated the Estates-General to gain a permanent taille and took over part of Burgandy when Charles the Bold died. He promoted new industries(like silk weaving at Lyon and Tours).

Louis XII

This young french ruler appointed Cardinal Armand Richelieu as his cheif minister to beat back the power of the Huguenots and strengthen the absolute power of the monarch. His marriage with Anne of Brittany also increased his power and he formed the League of Cambrai.

Concordat of Bologna

Treaty between the papacy(Pope Leo X) and France that repealed the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. King Francis I agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papacy over a universal council. In return, the French crown gained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. This treaty was signed as a way for Francis I to make money also allowed the French to pick their own priests for the churches, as a last resort to save money.

Henry IV

First Lancastrian king of England.

War of the Roses

Struggle for the English throne (1455-1485) between the House of York (white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose) ending with the accession of the Tudor monarch Henry VII.

Henry VI

Son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois, he started his reign as the King of France and England. His periods of insanity and his inherent benevolence eventually led to his downfall, the collapse of the House of Lancaster and the rise of the House of York.

Battle of Bosworth Field

Ultimate battle of the War of the roses. August 22, 1485. Lancastrians led by Henry VII, defeated Richard III.

Star Chamber

A division of the English Royal Council. Court used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility. Was so called of paint on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat. Established by Henry VII.

Royal Council

English King Henry VII's private council which governed at a national level (opposed to Parliament). Held all important power.

Justices of the Peace

Volunteers who handled work of local governments in England, mostly influential landowners who enforced laws, fixed wages and prices. Tudor Kings relied heavily on them.

Cortes

An assembly that limited the authority of the monarchy and had to be consulted in order to achieve compliance with royal edicts in Spain.

Hermandades

Ferdinand and Isabella revived this medieval institution. There were groups in Spanish towns given royal authority to serve as local police forces and as judicial tribunals with the goal of reducing aristocratic violence.

Pope Alexander VI

This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America with the Treaty of Tordesillas. A member of the Borgia family, encouraged his son Cesare to carve a state for himself in central Italy out of the territories of the Papal States.

Treaty of Tordesillas

A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.

Reconquista

Beginning in the 11th century, The military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler and kingdom of Granada fell and this ended.

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