Chapter 13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy

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Monroe

last president of the Virginia Dynasty

Henry Clay

candidate in the Election of 1824; eliminated first, but was the Speaker of the House; basically got to choose who the president would be

Corrupt Bargain of 1824

as Speaker of the House Clay chose Adams as president because he was also a nationalist and supporter of the American System; Adams made him Secretary of State

Adams

irritable, sarcastic, and tactless; unpopular; accused of corruption, refused to oust officeholders to fill positions with his supporters

increase infrastructure, astronomical observatory, attempt to deal fairly with Indians

Adams' actions in office

Election of 1828

election between Adams (National Republican) and Jackson (Democratic Republican)

Adams

during the Election of 1828: portrayed as oak, corrupt, accused of gambling and big pimpin', supporters from the Northeast and New England

Jackson

during the Election of 1828: portrayed as Hickory, frontiersman, common man, western and southern support

Jackson

winner of the election of 1828 by a landslide in the Electoral College

Spoils System

system of rewarding political supporters with public office; rampant under Jackson

Tariff of 1828

Jacksonites proposed a huge tariff expecting to be defeated; would look really bad for Adams; it passed and Jackson was stuck with the hot potato

South

most angered over the Tariff of 1828; felt discriminated against because they were having tough economic times while the north's manufacturing flourished; not protected by their own tariff

The Exposition

pamphlet by Calhoun; called the tariff of 1828 unconstitutional; called on states to nullify the tariff

Tariff of 1832

response to the Nullies in South Carolina; pared away the worst abominations, but still protective; did not quite meet Southern demands

Compromise Tariff of 1833

reduced the tariff of 1832 by 10% over 8 years; favored by Calhoun and the South

Force Bill

authorized the president to use the army and navy if necessary to collect federal tariff duties

The Society for Propagating the Gospel Among Indians

sent missionaries to the Native Americans in attempts to assimilate them into White society

Cherokees

Georgia tribe which adopted white customs such as alphabet, schools, three branches of government, and slavery

1828

year that Georgia declared the Indian government illegal and exacted their control over the Indian nations

Indian Removal Act

transplanting of all indian tribes east of the Mississippi (under Jackson); forced migration

Bureau of Indian Affairs

administered relations with Native Americans; Government's promises went up in smoke as settlers continued to push west

Black Hawk's Rebellion

Indians led by Black Hawk resisted eviction, but were crushed by American troops

Seminole

tribe that rebelled against eviction under their leader Osceola, until he was captured

Nicholas Biddle

president of the Bank of the United States; Jackson felt he had too much power over the nation's finances

Clay and Webster

pushed for a renewal of the Bank's charter 4 years early to make it an election issue; if the president vetoed it, it would alienate the wealthy, if he passed it, it would alienate his western followers

McCulloch vs. Marylans

Marshall court case in which the Bank of the United States was deemed constitutional

Election of 1832

`Clay vs. Jackson; Anti-Masonic party emerges

Anti-Masonic Party

opposed the influence and secrecy of orders such as the masons; appealed to evangelical protestants who wanted religion at the forefront of everyday life; influence in Mid-Atlantic and New England States

1833

year that Jackson decides to exterminate the bank by withdrawing all federal deposits; Jackson's Cabinet opposed

Biddle's Panic

Biddle called in all the loans for the bank; collapsed it along with several other smaller banks; smaller wildcat banks got federal funding and started printing paper money like crazy

Specie Circular

issued by Jackson; required all public lands to be purchased with metallic money

Whigs

Recalled British and Revolutionary American opposition to monarchy;l united under hatred of Jackson; supporters of the American System, states' rights, northern industrialists and merchants, evangelical protestants; conservative

Election of 1836

Martin Van Buren vs. William Henry Harrison; Van Buren squeaked by into presidency

Van Buren

accomplished strategist and spoilsman, statesman of wide experience, intelligent and educated, mild-mannered

conflict with Britain along northern frontier, anti-slavery movement, annexation of Texas, prelude to economic depression

problems faced by Van Buren

Panic of 1837

caused by rampant overspeculation of Western lands and failure of wheat crops, economic failures in Britain as well; caused many American banks and factories to close; high unemployment rate

Divorce Bill

divorced the government from the Bank forever

Independent Treasury Bill

created an independent government treasury; went through a cycle of being approved and declined until it merged with the Federal Reserve System in the next century

Stephen Austin

granted land by Mexican government in exchange for bringing in 300 Roman Catholic Families; went to Santa Anna to negotiate slavery and was put in prison

slavery, immigration, local rights

issues between the Americans and the Texans

Lone Star Rebellion

Texans declared their independence under Sam Houston

1836

year that Texans declared their independence

Alamo

site where the Mexican forces trapped and slaughtered the American forces including Bowie and Crockett

San Jacinto

site where American forces led the Mexicans and attacked during their siesta; captured Santa Anna and got him to sign two treaties

withdraw mexican troops, recognize rio grande as Texan border

agreements of Santa Anna to the Texan forces

Election of 1840

demonstrated how aristocracy was looked down upon and the common man was revered; demonstrated the emergence of a two-party system; Van Buren vs. William Henry Harrison

Whigs

□ Harmony of society and community
□ Use government to realize objectives
□ Renewed national bank
□ Protective tariff
□ Internal improvements
□ Moral reforms

Democrats

□ Liberty of the individual
□ Hated inroads of privilege into government
□ States' rights and federal restraint

Cherokee vs. Georgia

Marshall rules that Indians have no standing in court because they are not a foreign nation

Worcester vs. Georgia

§ NA community was a distinct political community in which the laws of Georgia could not apply
§ Their land could only be entered with permission
§ Essentially saying that you cannot move Native Americans
§ Certain degree of sovereignty there

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