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Polyenes

Drug Description: Antifungal drug that inhibits cell membranes

Polyenes

Description and mode of action: Inhibits cell membrane by forming a pore through the fungal membrane, which leads to leakage of essential ions from the cell

Polyenes

Representative: Amphotericin B

Quinolones

Drug Description: Antiprotozoal drug that inhibits DNA synthesis

Quinolones

Description and mode of action: Inhibits metabolism of malaria parasites by one or more unknown methods

Quinolones

representative: Several such as chloroquine

Tetracycline

Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that inhibits protein synthesis

Tetracycline

Description and mode of action: Prevents tRNA molecules from binding to ribosomes @ the 30S subunits docking site

Tetracycline

Representative: Tetracycline

Trimethoprim

Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that are antimetabolites

Trimethoprim

Description and mode of action: Blocks second metabolic step in the formation of folic acid from PABA; synergistic with sulfonamides

Trimethoprim

Representative: Trimethoprim

Vancomycin

Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis

Vancomycin

Description and mode of action: Directly interferes with the formation of alanine-alanine bridges between NAM subunits

Vancomycin

Representative: Vancomycin

Macrolides

Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis

Macrolides

Description and mode of action: Binds to 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes and preventing the elongation of the nascent protein

Macrolides

Representative: Erythromycin

Beta-lactams

Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis

Beta-lactams

Representative: Methicillin

Beta-lactams

Description and mode of action: Binds to and deactivates the enzymes that cross link the NAM subunits of peptidoglycan

Ribavirin

Drug Description: Antiviral drug that inhibits nucleic acid synthesis

Ribavirin

Representative: Ribavirin

Ribavirin

Description and mode of action: Inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis; viral DNA polymerase more likely to incorporate the drugs

Polymyxin

Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that alter cytoplasmic membranes of susceptible cells

Polymyxin

Representative: Polymyxin

Polymyxin

Description and mode of action: Destroys cytoplasm membranes of susceptible cells

Sulfonamides

Drug Description: Antibacterial drug that are antimetabolites

Sulfonamides

Representative: Several such as sulfadoxine

Sulfonamides

Description and mode of action: Analogs of PABA that bind irreversibly to enzyme that produces dihydrofolic acid; synergistic with Trimethoprim

Budding

In prokaryotes and yeasts, reproductive process in which an outgrowth of the parent cell receives a copy of the genetic material, enlarges, and detaches. In virology, extrusion of enveloped virions through the host's cell membrane

Ontogenesis

Theory suggests that more than one hit to the DNA whether caused by virus or various physical or chemical agents, is required to induce cancer. In this theory, revolves around the presence of proto-oncogenes, when repressed no cancer results

Persistent Infection

Infections with enveloped viruses in which host cells shed viruses slowly and relatively steadily. A curve showing virus abundance over time during a persistent infection lacks the burst of new virions seen in lyptic cycle

Latency

The process where a virus remains dormant in cells. For example Chickenpox and Herpes

Ionizing radiation

What is used for microbial control in fresh fruits and vegetables?

UV light & HEPA filters

What can be used to disinfect air?

Autoclaving and Incineration

Effective means of sterilization

Viruses & control of microbes (destroy the membrane)

70% alcohol is effective against what?

Inhibit cell wall synthesis

What do penicillins, cephalosporins, bacitracin, and vancomycin do?

Inhibit protein synthesis

What do Chloramphenicol plus clindamycin and metronidazole, Erythromycin, Tetracyclines, and Streptomycin do?

Inhibit nucleic acid synthesis

What do Quinolones & Rifamycins (rifampin) do?

Injury to plasma membrane

What do polymyxin B (Gm. Neg.)& Miconazole fungi cause?

Inhibit synthesis of essential metabolites

What do Sulfanilamide & Trimethoprim do?

Brain

Infection of the _____ would be the hardest to treat with antimicrobial drugs

They are caused by viruses

Why is it inappropriate to prescribe antibacterial agents to treat clods or flu?

Inhibiting protein synthesis

Most broad-spectrum antibiotics act by ________?

Retarding Resistance

β-lactamase production is an example of what type of resistance? (Inactivation of the drug)

Spirochete

What is a flexible, spiral-shape bacterium

Hyperthermophiles

Microbes growing in boiling hot mineral springs are generally ________?

Bacillus and Clostridium

Which bacterial genera produce endospores?

Scarce

Endospores can be produced when nutrients are ______?

Lactobacillus

________ protects areas of the body such as the intestinal tract and the vagina from invasion by pathogen

Tetanus, Gangrene, Botulism, Diarrhea

What are the diseases associated with clostridia?

Viroid

_____ are small circular pieces of RNA with no capsid that infect and cause disease in plants. Similar pathogenic RNA molecules have been found in fungi. Also, are acellular disease-causing agents that lack cell structure and cannot metabolize, grow, self-reproduce, or respond to their environment

Attachment, Entry, Synthesis, Release

What are the stages of Lytic replication cycle in order?

Lysogeny

_______ is advantageous to Bacteriophages since the genetic material of the Bacteriophages can be passed on the future generations of cells

Cytoplasm

In contrast to most dsDNA animal viruses, the poxviruses replicate solely in the ________ of the host cell

Capsid

What is the infectious particles of fungi have RNA genomes and lack a ______? (like viriods)

Symptoms

What are subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feel

Signs

What are observable characteristics of a disease

Pneumocystis jiroveci

The fungus _______ _______ is found in the lungs of most people in low numbers, but in immunocompromised people it overgrows, resulting in serve respiratory problems. The fungus is best described as both resident microbiota and opportunistic pathogen

Fomites

What are objects inadvertently used to transfer pathogens to new hosts, e.g. Glass and towel?

Vibrio cholera

Write the name of the organism that causes cholera

Parasitisms

A relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other is called ________?

Reservoir

A source of microbial contamination is known as a ________?

Botulism & HPV

List two diseases due to lysogenic conversion (phage conversion)

Retrovirus

What type of virus cause AIDS?

Feline spongiform encephalopathies, Kuru in human

List two diseases caused by prions

Borrelia burgdorferi

Write the name of the organism that causes Lyme disease

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