involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively.
Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities, primary mgmt. function because it is the basis for all other functions
Arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals, determining what needs to be done, how it will be done, and who is to do it
Working with and through people to accomplish goals.
monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned, provides link between leading and planning
Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field, tools and techniques to produce products
The ability to work well with other people, important for ALL mangers
The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization
Doing things differently, exploring new territory, and taking risks.
Managers should encourage employees to be aware of and act on opportunities for this
Defining the organization's goals
Establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals Developing plans for organizational work activities, provides directions, reduces uncertainty, est. goals/standards in controlling
Specific goals covering a specific time period, Written and shared with organizational members, higher profits and return on assets, positive financial results
Documents that outline how goals are to be accomplished
Describe how resources are to be allocated and establish activity schedules
related to the expected internal financial performance of the organization. ex. financial targets are 3-5% of avg. annual sales
related to the performance of the firm relative to factors in its external environment (e.g., competitors).ex. we want to be the world's most influential news org.
Establish the organization's overall goals, Seek to position the organization in terms of its environment, Cover extended periods of time
Specify the details of how the overall goals are to be achieved, Cover a short time period, narrow
long term plans
time frames expanding beyond three years
short term plans
time frames of one year or less
Plans that are clearly defined and leave no room for interpretation, ex. increase output by 8% over 12 months
single use plans
A one-time plan specifically designed to meet the need of a unique situation. ex. expand number of wal mart stores in china
Ongoing plans that provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly, policies, rules, procedures, ex. sex harassment plan that provides guidance
means end chain
The integrated network of goals that results from establishing a clearly-defined hierarchy of organizational goals.
Achievement of lower-level goals is the means by which to reach higher-level goals (ends).
management by objective
Specific performance goals are jointly determined by employees and managers, Progress toward accomplishing goals is periodically reviewed, Rewards are allocated on the basis of progress towards the goals. ex. sit down with manager and your team and set goals and review progress
elements of management by objective
participative decision making
an explicit performance/evaluation period
Current plans affecting future commitments must be sufficiently long-term in order to meet those commitments.
the process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting work performance, To ensure that activities are completed in ways that lead to the accomplishment of organizational goals.
Measuring actual performance
Comparing actual performance against a standard
Taking action to correct deviations or inadequate standards, provides key link back to planning
get firstand knowledge, information isn't filtered, intensive coverage of work activities, however is time consuming, obtrusive, and subject to biases
easy to visualize, effective for showing relationships, however provide ltd. information, ignore subjective factors
fast way to get info, allow for verbal and nonverbal feedback, however info is filtered and can't be documented
comprehensive, formal, easy to file and retrieve, however take more time to prepare
range of variation
the acceptable parameters of variance between actual performance and the standard.
immediate corrective action
corrective action that corrects problems at once in order to get performance back on track
basic corrective action
corrective action that looks at how and why performance deviated before correcting the source of deviation.
the accumulated results of all the organization's work activities.
the amount of goods or services produced divided by the inputs needed to generate that output. produce most goods using least amt . of inputs
a measure of how appropriate organizational goals are and how well those goals are being met.
feed forward control
control that takes place before a work activity is done., ex. communicate security policies to emp.
control that takes place while a work activity is in progress, as they happen
management by walking around
a term used to describe when a manager is out in the work area interacting directly with employees.
control that takes place after a work activity is done gives managers info on how effective planning efforts were
refers to getting the most output from the least amt of inputs "doings things right", not wasting resources
doing work activities that will help the organization reach its goals "doing things right" end or attainment of organizations goals
the reasons org. exist, consistent high quality customer service is essential for survival, employees must please these people
the company's ability to achieve its business goals and increase long term shareholder value by integrating economic, environmental, and social opp. into business strategies
universality of management
needed for all organizations, for all sizes, of all types, of all areas, for all level
control system provide managers with info and feedback on emp. performance
comparing actual performance against standard
determining degree of variation between actual cs. standard
range of variation
the acceptable parameters of variance between actual performance and the standard