Kidney Pathology

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Which of the following statements about polyuria is not true? a. Polyuria occurs when too much anti-diuretic hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. b. Patients with diabetes mellitus present with polyuria because of the increased amount of filtered solute, i.e. glucose c. Polyuria may be caused by drinking too much water. d.Polyuria refers to the excretion of more than 2 liters of urine per day.

a. Polyuria occurs when too much anti-diuretic hormone is produced by the pituitary gland.

The most important complication of infection of the urinary bladder (cystitis) is: a. Frequency of urination b. Infection of the kidney c. Discomfort to the patient d. Infection of the prostate

b. Infection of the kidney

In the normal kidney glomerulus, the glomerular basement membrane is responsible for which one of the following? a. Blood pressure control b. Erythropoietin release c. Filtration barrier for plasma proteins d. Maintenance of normal serum potassium levels

c. Filtration barrier for plasma proteins

Which of the following is not associated with a significant loss of kidney function? a. Nil lesion nephrotic syndrome of childhood b. Low creatinine clearance by the kidneys c. Elevated serum BUN (blood urea nitrogen) level d. Severe proliferative glomerulonephritis

a. Nil lesion nephrotic syndrome of childhood

Creatinine is produced at a constant rate each day by muscle metabolism and is measured in blood and urine to calculate creatinine clearance by the kidneys. Which is not true about creatinine clearance? a. Standard clearance calculation requires subject's height and weight b. Approximates the glomerular filtration rate c. Represents both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion d. Is decreased in chronic renal failure

c. Represents both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion

Which kidney disease is not mediated by immune complexes? a. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis b. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome c. Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus nephritis) d. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

b. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome

The nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disease characterized by: a. Sudden onset of kidney failure and anuria b. Hematuria, proteinuria with hypertension c. Massive proteinuria, low serum albumin level and edema d. Microscopic hematuria and no symptoms

c. Massive proteinuria, low serum albumin level and edema

Minimal change (nil lesion) kidney disease of childhood is so-called because: a. There are no visible changes in glomeruli by light microscopy b. There are no visible changes in glomeruli by electron microscopy c. There are no physical findings on examination of the patient d. The urine is normal on testing for protein

a. There are no visible changes in glomeruli by light microscopy

Autosomal dominant polycystic disease of the kidney is characterized by each of the following except: a. The disease is present in one parent b. It is usually clinically evident by age 30-40 years c. Hypertension is frequently present d. Cysts are caused by gas-forming bacteria in the kidney

d. Cysts are caused by gas-forming bacteria in the kidney

Which of the following kidney diseases is associated with a positive urine culture for bacteria? a. Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis b. Acute pyelonephritis c. Polycystic kidney d. Chronic glomerulonephritis

b. Acute pyelonephritis

Which of the following glomerulonephritic diseases is not accompanied by low serum complement (C3) levels? a. Lupus erythematosus nephritis b. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis c. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis d. IgA nephropathy (Berger's Disease)

d. IgA nephropathy (Berger's Disease)

Which of the following is not a primary function of the kidney: a. Regulation of acid-base balance b. Regulation of antidiuretic hormone c. Excretion of nitrogenous waste products d. Production of erythropoietin

b. Regulation of antidiuretic hormone

Nephrotic syndrome is a/an: a. Immune-related disorder b. Disorder that often follows an untreated streptococcal throat infection c. Disease presenting with massive proteinuria (>3.5 g/d), edema, and hypoalbuminemia d. Developmental disease of the kidney

c. Disease presenting with massive proteinuria (>3.5 g/d), edema, and hypoalbuminemia

What is the generally accepted concentration of bacteria present in a quantitative urine culture that is diagnostic of a urinary tract infection? a. >100,000 colonies/mL b. >10,000 colonies/mL c. >1,000 colonies/mL d. >100 colonies/mL

a. >100,000 colonies/mL

Vesico-ureteral reflux is a condition where: a. Large kidneys are seen containing multiple cysts b. Bacteria from bladder urine may reach the kidney parenchyma c. Antigen-antibody complexes are deposited on the glomerular basement membrane d. Red cells, white cells, and casts are present - an active urinary sediment is seen

b. Bacteria from bladder urine may reach the kidney parenchyma

Which of the following is generally true about post infectious glomerulonephritis? a. Is often drug-related b. Progression to renal failure is common c. Does not spontaneously remit; needs aggressive therapy d. Can follow a untreated group A beta hemolytic streptococcal throat infection

d. Can follow a untreated group A beta hemolytic streptococcal throat infection

Which of the following is associated with acute tubular necrosis? a. Damage to glomeruli is noted b. IgA deposited in glomerular mesangium c. Sloughing of renal tubular cells in the renal tubules d. Presence of multiple cysts in the kidney

c. Sloughing of renal tubular cells in the renal tubules

Which of the following is an immune-complex mediated disease? a. Acute pyelonephritis b. Polycystic kidney disease c. Post infectious acute gomerulonephritis d. Nil lesion nephrotic syndrome (minimal change disease)

c. Post infectious acute gomerulonephritis

Which of the following is not a characteristic of acute tubular necrosis (ATN)? a. Needs support and dialysis b. Decreased urine output c. Is a reversible process d. IgA deposits seen in glomerular mesangium

d. IgA deposits seen in glomerular mesangium

The presence of which of the following is not part of "active urinary sediment"? a. Red Cells b. White Cells c. Casts d. Bacteria

d. Bacteria

Characteristics of "nephritic" syndrome include all but the following: a. Associated with hypertension b. Proteinuria > 3.5g/day c. Associated with renal failure d. Presence of an "active urinary sediment"

b. Proteinuria > 3.5g/day

In treating/managing diabetes mellitus, which finding is it especially important to measure early? a. Microalbuminuria b. Hematuria c. Both d. Neither

a. Microalbuminuria

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