A general term for any treatment process; in psychology and psychiatry, therapy refers to a variety of psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems of living.
-insight, behavioral, medical, talk
Therapies based on psychological principles (rather than on the biomedical approach); often called "psychotherapy."
-Focus on changing disordered thoughts, feelings, and behavior using psychological techniques
Treatments that focus on altering the brain, especially with drugs, psychosurgery, or electroconvulsive therapy.
-• Employ variety of drugs (antidepressants, tranquilizers, stimulants), sometimes use electromagnetic stimulation or surgery
Psychotherapies in which the therapist helps patients/clients understand (gain insight into) their problems.
-attempt to chance the way people think and feel
Psychotherapies that focus on communicating and verbalizing emotions and motives to understand their problems.
-Talk clinical perspective - uses various techniques for revealing and changing a patient's disturbed mental processes through discussion and interpretation
The form of psychodynamic therapy developed by Sigmund Freud. The goal of psychoanalysis is to release conflicts and memories from the unconscious.
-Uses free association (talk about whatever comes to mind); Dream interpretation
Analysis of transference
The Freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient's relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patient's past.
-(relationship w/parents caused unresolved problems which were projected onto the therapist)
Neo-Freudian psychodynamic therapies
Therapies for mental disorder that were developed by psychodynamic theorists who embraced some of Freud's ideas but disagreed with others.
-Shift focus from unconscious to conscious motivation (don't probe hidden conflicts and repressed memories)
Treatment techniques based on the assumption that people have a tendency for positive growth and self-actualization, which may be blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self0evaluation and criticism from others.
-Therapist would have worked with Freud's patient by exploring self-concept and feelings about her parents
A humanistic approach to treatment developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizing an individual's tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization.
-Carl Rogers; Healthy development can be hindered by conflict between one's desire for a positive self-image and criticism by self & others
Reflection of feeling
Carl Roger's technique of paraphrasing the clients' words, attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed.
-Paraphrase client's words, attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed and acting as a sort of psychological "mirror" in which clients can see themselves
Emphasizes rational thinking (as opposed to subjective emotion, motivation, or repressed conflicts) as the key to treating mental disorder.
-Psychological problems arise from erroneous thinking
Any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client/patient at a time. Group therapy is often done from a humanistic perspective.
-Couples, families, groups of people with similar problems (drug addiction)
Self-help support groups
Groups, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, that provide social support and an opportunity for sharing ideas about dealing with common problems. Such groups are typically organized and run by laypersons, rather than professional therapists.
-Many are free; give people a chance to meet under non threatening conditions to exchange ideas with others who have similar problems
Another term for behavior therapy.
-problems such as overeating, bed-wetting, shyness, antisocial
Any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning.
-Behaviors are learned and therefore can be unlearned; Deals with fears, compulsions, depression, addictions, aggression, and delinquent behaviors
A behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient to an anxiety-provoking stimulus.
-Trains patients to relax muscles and mind; Extinguishes fears by having them imagine fearful situations
A form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confronts the anxiety-provoking stimulus (as opposed to imagining the stimulus).
-Spider, snake - doesn't just imagine it
As a classical conditioning procedure, aversive counter-conditioning involves presenting individuals with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant (aversive) stimulation in order to condition revulsion.
-electric shock or nausea-producing drugs (highly unpleasant but not harmful)
An operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by altering the consequences, especially rewards and punishments, of behavior.
-johnny throws tantrums in the stores, to fix it his parents withdraw attention and only giving attention when he's being good
An operant technique applied to groups, such as classrooms or mental hospital wards, involving the distribution of "tokens" or other indicators of reinforcement contingent on desired behaviors. The tokens can later be exchanged for privileges, food, or other reinforces.
-Key: need reinforcement immediately after desired response
A social-learning technique in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior.
-Coaches use technique to teach athletes new skills; Good for treating phobias - fear of snakes: therapist would touch a caged snake and client would imitate behavior on own
A newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of behavior therapy.
-addicted smoker might automatically tell himself "one more cigarette won't hurt me" or "I'll go crazy with out them" - irrational statements must be changed or replaced with rational constructive coping statements before unacceptable behavior pattern can be modified
Rational-emotive behavior therapy (rebt)
Albert Ellis's brand of cognitive therapy, based on the idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders.
-you frequently tell yourself you "should" always get an A in math or your "ought to" spend an hour exercising a day - if unable to meet goal and seldom question neurotic talk, you prevent you from choosing life you want
A person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows interest, and asking questions for clarification.
The prescribed use of drugs to help treat symptoms of mental illness ostensibly to ensure that individuals are more receptive to talk therapies.
Medicines that diminished psychotic symptoms, usually by their effect on the dopamine pathways in the brain.
-treats delusions, hallucinations, social withdrawal, agitation
An incurable disorder of motor control, especially involving muscles of the face and head, resulting from long-term use of antipsychotic drugs.
Medicines that affect depression, usually by their effect on the serotonin and/or norepinephrine pathways in the brain
-• Drugs may merely mask psychological problem and need to be faced and resolved
A simple chemical compound that is highly effective in dampening the extreme mood swings of bipolar disorder.
-Drawback: high concentrations can be toxic
A category of drugs that includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines, drugs that diminish feelings of anxiety.
-Psychologist believe they're too often prescribed for problems that people should face and fix
Drugs that normally increase activity level by encouraging communication among neurons in the brain. Stimulants, however, have been found to suppress activity level in persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
-caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (adhd)
A common problem in children who have difficulty controlling their behavior and focusing their attention.
-Stimulants used to treat - increases availability of dopamine, glutamate, and/or serotonin in brain
the general term for surgical intervention in the brain to treat psychological disorders.
-Considered as a last resort
Electroconvulsive therapy (ect)
A treatment used primarily for depression and involving the application of an electric current to the head, producing a generalized seizure. Sometimes called "shock treatment."
-Treats depression, especially those with suicidal tendencies
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (tms)
A treatment that involves magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain. Unlike ECT, TMS does not produce a seizure.
-Treats depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Still in experimental stage
Jones's term for a program of treating mental disorder by making the institutional environment supportive and humane for patients.
-Daily hospital routine structured as therapy - help patients learn to cope with outside world
The policy of removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals.
-Gained popularity with politicians (too much money going to hospitals)
Community mental health movement
An effort to deinstitutionlize mental patients and to provide therapy from outpatient clinics. Proponents of community mental health envisioned that recovering patients could live with their families, in foster homes, or in group homes.
-Psychological and drug therapies administered through outpatient clinics