Anti-infectives - Pharm Test 3

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This drug is given IV b/c it is destroyed by stomach acid when given PO. Includes potential SE of seizures. What is another SE with IM admin?

Penicillin G; pain at injection site

What drug class may be included in a cross allergy with PCN?

cephalosporins

What are the two main indications for Penicillin G benzathine?

syphilis and strep pharyngitis

A beta lactam that is the DOC for OM? what is another indication?

amoxicillin; H. pylori

What component of Augmentin binds irreversibly to bacterial beta lactamases?

clavulanic acid

piperacillin is indicated in the Tx of gram ___ and _________ bacteria.

negative; anaerobic

antipseudomonal PCNs are always combo with ...

aminoglycosides

Important SE fo cephalosporins include...

hypersensitivity rxns, pseudomembranous colitis and disulfuram-like rxn with EtOH

A 1st gen cephalosporin that is a good narrow spectrum drug for Tx of gram +, proteus, and E. coli bacteria.

cephalexin

This exhibits the best activity against P. aeruginsoa.

ceftazidime

ceftriaxone is the DOC for what condition?

GC

Name the typical dose and half-life of cefriaxone.

IM/IV; 8h

This cephalosporin is eliminated in the bile and is therefore good for us in RF pts.

ceftriaxone

what beat lactam is given for bact meningitis in children?

meropenem

A characteristic SE of vancomycin?

red neck syndrome

What MAO inhibiting drug is the DOC for MRSA as an alternative to vancomycin and is also indicated for VRE?

linezolid

Name two unique SE of linezolid.

myelosupression and optic neuropathy

What should you tell pts to avoid while taking linezolid?

foods or beverages with high tyramine content

What class of drugs have a concentration killing effect and are indicated in Tx of gram (-) aerobes (especially sepsis)?

aminoglycosides

Name two drugs that are known for being ototoxic and nephrotoxic.

vancomycin and gentamycin (aminoglycosides)

What dosing schedule is ideal for aminoglycosides?

once daily

A unique SE of gentamycin?

vestibular dysfunction

this drug chelates minerals such as calcium and may stain teeth brown when given to PG or < 8 yo.

tetracycline

this broad spectrum drug is eliminated in the feces and does not need renal dosing.

doxycycline

Doxy is the DOC for what infection?

chlamydia

what is a unique SE of doxy?

photosensitivity

What is a administration requirement of tetracycline?

taken on an empty stomach

Used to Tx respiratory infections, chlamydial infections and pharyngitis, this macrolide has a very long T/2.

azithromycin

What is a administration requirement of azithromycin?

taken 1h AC or 2 hr PC (inactivated by gastric juice)

This protein synthesis inhibitor is a 1st line drug in the Tx of anaerobic bacteria and is the DOC for paronychias.

clindamycin

what drug should not be combined with clindamycin?

erythromycin

complications of clindamycin Tx includes...

pseudomembranous colitis and agranulocytosis

Pt's taking clindamycin should be told to RTC for _________

diarrhea

What fluoroquinolone is indicated for Tx of gram (-) GI diarrhea, UTI's and GC?

ciprofloxacin

What are two important SE of cipro Tx?

photoxicity and tendonitis

What is the MOA of FQ?

inhibition of DNA gyrase

Other than 1st line Tx for UTIs what are other indications for TMP-SMZ?

pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and OM

What complication of co-trimoxazole can occur if given to children < 2yo?

kernicterus

This class of Abx may cause severe GI upset.

macrolides

This drug is a alternative Tx for C. diff. and is the DOC for trichomaniasis.

metronidazole

Name a weird SE of Flagyl. what substance should be avoided that may cause violent emesis?

orange-brown urine; EtOH

SE of amphoteracin B include...

impaired renal fxn, seizures, and thrombocytopenia

amphoteracin B combines with what component of fungal cell walls in order to alter permeability?

ergosterols

what antifungal requires an acidic environment in order to be dissolved?

ketaconazole

What are two important SE of ketaconazole?

hepatotoxicity and gynecomastia (interferes with adrenal/gonadal steroids)

What is inhibited by azoles?

CYP 450 system

What is an important warning for terbinafine?

liver failure

What are the main indications for terbinafine?

onychomycosis and tinea

Two strange SE of terbinafine to know about are...

pruritic rash and taste disturbance

This tuberculostatic drug's absoprtion is impaired by food and has SE of peripheral neuropathy, liver damage, and psychosis.

isoniazid

This wide spectrum Abx is known for turning secretions red.

rifampin

What drug may cause hepatorenal syndrome.

rifampin

A drug known to cause optic neuritis with sx of eye pain, blurred vision, and red-green colorblindness.

ethambutol

This TB drug is the most likely to cause liver damage.

pyrazinamide

A tx for genital herpes and vericella zoster

acyclovir

A SE of zidovudine

anemia (also neutropneia and unusual bleeding)

an HIV drug know to have a SE of SJS.

nevirapine

the preferred drug for HIV?

efavirenz

This drug is used in Tx CMV in AIDS and may cause thrombocytopenia.

ganciclovir

TOC for giardiasis?

metronidazole

TOC for pinworms?

mebendazole (cat D)

TOC for Haemophilus influenzae meningitis?

PCN G

DOC for tapeworms?

praziquantel

Two drugs that may have a disulfuram-like effect? what pt ed should be given?

metronidazole and cephalosporins; don't drink EtOH

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