King of the Franks and emperor. Through a series of military conquests he established the Caroligian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy.
Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival.
Literally "middle age," a term that historians use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying it's intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance.
German traditions and Christianity created middle age.
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from "Byzantium," an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Built on the heritage of the Roman Empire
State established at Kiev in Ukraine by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population.
Shaped by Byzantine emperors and Christian church.
A formal split within a religious community.
Caused by bad relations between pope and princes
In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence, outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land.
Popular because of safety that came with living near the lord
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perfrom set services for the lord.
Provided safety from invaders
In medieval Europe, land granted in return for sworn oath to provide specified military service.
Fiefs could be inherited as long as service was continued
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord.
Kings granted fiefs to vassals
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Churcg, of which the pope was head.
Roman nobles lost control of the papacy.
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held the ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.
Led to the schism.
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. It was a prominent element of medieval Christianity and Buddhism.
Monasteries were the primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe.
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from an animal's neck to the shoulders.
it's adoption favors the spread or horse drawn plows and vehicles.
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
Journey to a sacre c shrine by Christians seeking to show piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins.
Played an important role in European religious life
The Byzantine Empire represented a
continuation of Roman imperial rule.
Why is the period in Europe between 500 C.E. and 1300 C.E. called the "Middle Ages"?
It came between the Greco-Roman civilization and the Renaissance.
In the Byzantine world, Christianity progressed most rapidly in:
The "plague of Justinian" was a/an:
outbreak of the bubonic plague.
Which was NOT true regarding the relationship between vassal, lord, and king?
Land was granted in return for taxes.
How did improvements in armor dictate changes as to who could become a mounted knight?
As armor became more expensive, only the wealthy could afford to outfit themselves properly.
At its height, the Carolingian Empire included all of the following EXCEPT:
most of Britain.
Which of the following statements about noblewomen in medieval Europe is NOT true?
Noblewomen lived powerless, sheltered lives.
What was the investiture controversy?
A conflict between popes and kings regarding control of ecclesiastical offices.
The most important form of monasticism in western Europe involved:
groups of monks or nuns living together.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the influence of Roman traditions in Byzantium?
Byzantium carried on the traditions of Rome almost without interruption.
Why is it paradoxical that women ruled the Byzantine Empire together with their husbands from 1028 to 1056?
Byzantine women increasingly found themselves confined to their homes and required to veil themselves in public.