The enzyme pancratic amylase continues the digestion of
The majority of nutrient absorption takes place in the pancreas?
Our genetic information, if the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is located in the
Lipids have a higher satiety value than solid foods
Excellent sources of protein,_______include foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils and chickpeas
Which of the following foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?
Olive Oils and Cashew Nuts
Which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers?
During exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat?
A triglyceride is comprised of
3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the muscles and
Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar?
Mucilage is a type of fiber used to
Thicken jams and yogurts
The richest dietary source of resistant starch is
The enzyme____ amylase is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
The major site of nutrient absorption in the body is the small______
The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a
All legumes are complete proteins?
Significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the
Which of the following is the most complete protein from a plant source?
Food intolerances are much more serious than food allergies?
The FDA currently requires food labels to clearly identify any ingredient containing protein derived from the eight major allergenic foods
Celiac disease is considered a genetic disorder?
There is no different between a food intolerance and a food allergy; they are synonymous.
The macronutrient with the highest satiety value is
A ______ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid
Glycogen is not a good source of dietary carbs
Which of the following hormones is not involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?
Due to the fermentation process alcoholic beverages are rich sources of dietary maltose
The electrically charged particle that assists in maintaining the body's fluid balance is called a/n ______
The pancreatic hormone______, and also glucagons, are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels
The "powerhouse" of the cell that produces most of the ATP is/are the
Bile, the greenish fluid that emulsifies dietary fat, is made in your gallbladder
Immeadiately after absorption, most of the fat soluble nutrients are carried through the _______ circulatory system
Egg Whites stiffen when they are whipped. The change that occurs in the protein is called _______
Which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intake?
Sickle Cell anemia
Denaturation results in the loss of the protein's function
Conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles depends on the proper balance of______
Currently, there is no cure for celiac disease?
Lactose intolerance is a common what?
Lactose Intolerance is caused by
An insufficient production of the enzyme lactase
The immune system plays a major role in the development of a food intolerance
Inside each villus of the small intestine are capillaries and a small lymph vessel called a _______
Which of the following foods contain a large quantity of saturated fatty acids?
Palm kernel and coconut oils
People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15 percent of kilocalories
Invisible or "hidden" fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature
Plant fats provide 80-90 percent of their energy from saturated fats
The primary energy source used by the body at rest is
Tiny units of matter that cannot be broken down by natural means are called ______
Lipids that contain multiple carbon ring structures are
Chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another amino acid are ________ bonds
As they are not digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon
After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the bodys cells?
How many grade of carbs (per day_ are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals (RDA)
Fat is the primary fuel for the brain?
The human body cannot make cholesterol, thus it is an essential nutrient we must consume in our diet in moderation.
Saturated fatty acids can occur in either a cis or trans shape
A fatty acid that contains a chain of ten carbons and one double bond is termed a fatty acid?
Monunsaturated, medium chain
The enzyme_______amylase is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the mouth
A painful sensation in the chest that results from gastric juices seeping back up into the esophagus is called
The nerves of the GI tract are collectively know as the ______ nervous system
Vegetarian diets are associated with increased consumption of ______
What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body?
The DNA inside the nucleus of the cell
In what structure of the mammalian cell are proteins synthesized
The contents of the stomach when food is present is
Which physiological trigger/s will result in the sensation of hunger?
Low glucose levels
Eating spicy foods causes most peptic ulcers?
Salivary amylase begins the digestion of__________ in the mouth
A ______fatty acid contains no double bonds between carbons
Celiac disease is easy to diagnose, as its symptoms do not mimic any other intestinal disturbance
In photosynthesis, the pigment _______ absorbs sunlight to make glucose
It is safe for pregnant women to consume artificial sweeteners in moderate amounts
Which of the following artificial sweeteners is made from sucrose?
Enzymes that break down protein in the small intestine
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions without being physically altered
Which of the following is not associated with kwashiorkor?
Flat belly and abdomen
How do proteins differ from carbs and fats?
Proteins contain nitrogen
What is the order in which each of the organs of the GI tract will work to achieve this process?
Mouth-Esophagus-Stomach-Small Intestine-Large Intestine
Hunger as opposed to appetite, is best described as a
Physilogical desire or need to consume foods
Overall very little chemical digestion occurs in the human mouth
Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy
What is the function of the bicarbonate that is released into the duodenum during the process of digestion?
To neutralize the acidic chyme
Often called the cells powerhouse, the ribosome produces the energy molecule ATP from basic food components
The wavelike contractions that move food along the GI tract are called
The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called _________
Two amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by product of this process?
Once food is swallowed, a tiny flap of tissue called the _______keeps it from entering the trachea
Where in the body are the majority of trigylcerides stored for future energy needs?
Protein _______ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins
The term that describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain is ___________
Which of the following is not on of the foods that contains protein derived from one of the major allergenic foods?
The widespread inflammatory reaction caused by eating a food to which one is allergic can result in an anaphylactic shock that, left untreated, is nearly always fatal
Sugar alcohols are most often used in which product
The term complex carbohydrates refers to
A diet high in simple sugars has been show to increase both triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood?
Which of the following is an example of a soluble fiber?
Tight rings of muscles that control the movement of food through the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are
Wheat is the only grain that people with celiac disease have to carefully avoid
Individuals with celiac disease must eat gluten free foods, which can be made from
Rice and Potato Flour
In the body, buffers are very important in
Maintaining acid base balance in the body
Which of the following foods is a source of complete protein?
A proteins ________ structure refers to the twisting, spiral shape formed by the sequence and chemical properties of its amino acids
Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat?
Plant foods tend to be high in ________ fats
Bile is released into the ______ in response to the ingestion of fat in the diet
Cells are the smallest functional units of life that can grow, reproduce and perform basic functions
When a protein attracts or releases hydrogen, it acts as a/n
The lining of the small intestine is smooth and flat, allowing for increased transit time of food material?
Sex homones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid
A/n _______ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food
The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a/n ________ amino acid
Under normal physiological conditions, every cell of the body is capable of making each type of protein needed by the body
Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?
Many lactose intolerant people can digest aged cheese and yogurt with live, active cultures without any gastrointestinal side effects
Alkalosis is a condition in which the pH of the blood becomes too basic
Which of the following is most likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?
A 29 year old woman who is 6 months pregnant
An acid base imbalance can result in ________
coma and death
The insoluble fiber that provides the main structural component of plant cell walls is _________
To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as ________
Only plants can synthesize cholesterol
Which lipoprotein transports dietary fat out of the small intestine?
Diets high in _______ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer
The primary function of mucus in the stomach is to
Protect the stomach cells from gastric juices (HCI)
Irritable Bowl Syndome (IBS) always manifests itself by diarrhea, bloating and abdominal cramps
The cell membrane is selectively permeable, allowing only some compounds to enter and leave the cell
What is the cephalic phase?
Earliest phase of digestion when the brain prepares the body in anticipation of food
Combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called ___________ supplementation
Hypoglycemia is seen only in people with type 1 diabetes
Individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame, Why?
People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine
Secreted from many glands of the body, _______ are chemical messengers that trigger a physiological response
During the process of photosynthesis, _____________ is the step in which messenger RNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence at the cells ribosome
Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because ______ intake is sufficient
Which of the following foods contain invisible fats?
The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is ________ of total energy intake
Lipids can be either solid or liquid at room temperature
The term that describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain is ________
What is the name of the sphincter that seperates the stomach from the small intestine
All of the following would be recommended for the treatment of GERD except
Eating 2 large meals a day
Most dietary fiber is absorbed in the small intestine
EPA and DHA are metabolic derivatives of ________
Which of the following statements is true about trans fatty acids?
They are created during hydrogenation process
Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature
Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids?
Margarine made from corn of safflower oil
Lactose is composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of ________
A type of protein energy malnutrition that results from a short term deficiency of protein is ____________
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
The glycogen stored in muscle cells is used primarily to provide glucose for red blood cells
The synthesis of new glucose from amino acids
Collectively, the nerves of the GI tract are refered to as _______ nerves
When blood leaves the small intestine, it is routed directly through the portal vein to the
Which of the following is not typically a nutrient of concern for vegans?
Which of the following statements is false?
HCI inhibits the digestion of fat so it does not compete with protein digestion
The storage form of glucose in animals is ________
Invisible or hidden fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature
Which artificial sweetener was almost banned because of a proposed relationship with bladder cancer in experimental animals?
Even if the Nutrition Facts panel states 0g trans fats, the product could still have 1/2g of trans fat per serving
The brush border is located in the __________
Marasmus is a serious condition resulting from inadequate intakes of protein and energy
Polypeptides are a string of _________ amino acids
More than 10
The term ___________ refers to the production of new glucose from the breakdown of protein
The most common sterol in our diet is _________
What is chyme?
Mixture of partially digested food, water and gastric juices
A lack of fiber in the diet can lead to sacs or pouches that protrude from the wall of the large intestine in the disease called
Carb digestion begins in the _____
Individuals with untreated __________ are at risk for developing ketoacidosis
Sex hormons and adrenal hormons are substances derived from which class of lipid?
Mechanical Digestion begins in the
The enzymes that digest proteins in the small intestine are _______
The human GI tract is approximately ______ feet long
Plant Fats provide 80-90 percent of their energy from saturated fats
Saccharin use is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans
Fatty acids released from storage travel in the blood attached to the protein_________
All of the following organs assist in the digestion of lipids EXCEPT the
The vast majority of fat digestion occurs in the _________
What part of gastric juices in the stomach kills bacteria and germs you may have consumed?
Carb digestion ceases in the stomach because the pH of the stomach inactivates salivary amylase
Meat is not a good dietary source of glycogen. Why?
Most of the glycogen found in meat is broken down when the animal is slaughtered
Which would not be good advice to increase the fiber content of her diet?
Add additional fiber by taking fiber supplements each day
Consuming individual amino acids and protein supplements can build muscle and improve strength
Which of the following supplements would you recommend a vegan add to his/her diet?
Diets high in protein are associated with low blood cholesterol levels
A ______ is a spherical compound made up of bile and phospholipids that prepares dietary fat for absorption
Bile is released into the ________ in response to the ingestion of fat in the diet
Sodium bicarbonate is secreted by the pancreas and functions to ___________
Neutralize stomach acid
The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called
In phenylketonuria (PKU) what amino acid becomes conditionally essential?
In the stomach, HCI converts the inactive enzyme ___________ into its active form pepsin to facilitate the breakdown of proteins
Appetite is triggered by
environmental cues such as the smell or taste of food
Responding to the presence of protein and fat in our meal, cholecystokinin (CCK) signals the gallbladder to release a substance called
Women who are pregnant or __________ are at higher risk of developing harmful effects from environmental contaminates in some fish
Which of the following is a fat replacer?
The enzyme that frees fatty acids from circulating lipoproteins so that they can be taken up by the cell is _______ lipase
All of the following are examples of amino acid containing hormones except
Assuming the calories and relative sizes are similar which of the following snack will have the highest satiety value?
Piece of cheese
Which of the following best describes the glycemic index?
The extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin
A ______ is a body protein that is stored in a gland and secreted to an organ to restore normal body conditions of balance
Low fat is considered
3 grams or less of fat
A deficiency of protein can lead to a condition called _______ in which fluid accumulates in the body's tissue spaces
Overconsumption of simple sugars causes hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children
Which of the following describes lipids?
Organic nutrients that are insoluble in water
A/n ______ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food.
Individual amino acid supplements are absorbed better than a combination of amino acids
Which of the following carbs is the end produce of photosynthesis?
Invisible of hidden fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature
Which of the following is a monosaccharide?
Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not absorbed by the body?
A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is ___________
Essential amino acids are more important to the human body than nonessential amino acids