Nutritional Science

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The enzyme pancratic amylase continues the digestion of

Vitamins

The majority of nutrient absorption takes place in the pancreas?

False

Our genetic information, if the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is located in the

Nucleus

Lipids have a higher satiety value than solid foods

False

Excellent sources of protein,_______include foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils and chickpeas

Legumes

Which of the following foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?

Olive Oils and Cashew Nuts

Which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers?

Gastrointestinal Distress

During exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat?

Adrenaline

A triglyceride is comprised of

3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol

In the body, the major storage sites for glycogen are the muscles and

Liver

Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar?

False

Mucilage is a type of fiber used to

Thicken jams and yogurts

The richest dietary source of resistant starch is

Legumes

The enzyme____ amylase is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the mouth

Salivary

The major site of nutrient absorption in the body is the small______

intestine

The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a

Lacto-ovo vegetarian

All legumes are complete proteins?

False

Significant chemical digestion of protein begins in the

Stomach

Which of the following is the most complete protein from a plant source?

Soybeans

Food intolerances are much more serious than food allergies?

False

The FDA currently requires food labels to clearly identify any ingredient containing protein derived from the eight major allergenic foods

True

Celiac disease is considered a genetic disorder?

True

There is no different between a food intolerance and a food allergy; they are synonymous.

False

The macronutrient with the highest satiety value is

Protein

A ______ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid

cis

Glycogen is not a good source of dietary carbs

True

Which of the following hormones is not involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?

Thyroxin

Due to the fermentation process alcoholic beverages are rich sources of dietary maltose

False

The electrically charged particle that assists in maintaining the body's fluid balance is called a/n ______

electrolyte

The pancreatic hormone______, and also glucagons, are responsible for maintaining blood glucose levels

Insulin

The "powerhouse" of the cell that produces most of the ATP is/are the

Mitochondria

Bile, the greenish fluid that emulsifies dietary fat, is made in your gallbladder

False

Immeadiately after absorption, most of the fat soluble nutrients are carried through the _______ circulatory system

Lymphatic

Egg Whites stiffen when they are whipped. The change that occurs in the protein is called _______

Denaturation

Which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intake?

Sickle Cell anemia

Denaturation results in the loss of the protein's function

True

Conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles depends on the proper balance of______

electrolytes

Currently, there is no cure for celiac disease?

True

Lactose intolerance is a common what?

Food intolerance

Lactose Intolerance is caused by

An insufficient production of the enzyme lactase

The immune system plays a major role in the development of a food intolerance

False

Inside each villus of the small intestine are capillaries and a small lymph vessel called a _______

lacteal

Which of the following foods contain a large quantity of saturated fatty acids?

Palm kernel and coconut oils

People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15 percent of kilocalories

False

Invisible or "hidden" fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature

False

Plant fats provide 80-90 percent of their energy from saturated fats

False

The primary energy source used by the body at rest is

Fat

Tiny units of matter that cannot be broken down by natural means are called ______

atoms

Lipids that contain multiple carbon ring structures are

Sterols

Chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another amino acid are ________ bonds

Peptide

As they are not digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon

False

After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the bodys cells?

Insulin

How many grade of carbs (per day_ are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals (RDA)

130 grams

Fat is the primary fuel for the brain?

False

The human body cannot make cholesterol, thus it is an essential nutrient we must consume in our diet in moderation.

False

Saturated fatty acids can occur in either a cis or trans shape

False

A fatty acid that contains a chain of ten carbons and one double bond is termed a fatty acid?

Monunsaturated, medium chain

The enzyme_______amylase is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the mouth

salivary

A painful sensation in the chest that results from gastric juices seeping back up into the esophagus is called

Heartburn

The nerves of the GI tract are collectively know as the ______ nervous system

enteric

Vegetarian diets are associated with increased consumption of ______

Antioxidants

What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body?

The DNA inside the nucleus of the cell

In what structure of the mammalian cell are proteins synthesized

Ribbosome

The contents of the stomach when food is present is

Very Acidic

Which physiological trigger/s will result in the sensation of hunger?

Low glucose levels

Eating spicy foods causes most peptic ulcers?

False

Salivary amylase begins the digestion of__________ in the mouth

Carbs

A ______fatty acid contains no double bonds between carbons

Saturated

Celiac disease is easy to diagnose, as its symptoms do not mimic any other intestinal disturbance

False

In photosynthesis, the pigment _______ absorbs sunlight to make glucose

Chlorophyll

It is safe for pregnant women to consume artificial sweeteners in moderate amounts

True

Which of the following artificial sweeteners is made from sucrose?

Sucralose

Proteases are

Enzymes that break down protein in the small intestine

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions without being physically altered

True

Which of the following is not associated with kwashiorkor?

Flat belly and abdomen

How do proteins differ from carbs and fats?

Proteins contain nitrogen

What is the order in which each of the organs of the GI tract will work to achieve this process?

Mouth-Esophagus-Stomach-Small Intestine-Large Intestine

Hunger as opposed to appetite, is best described as a

Physilogical desire or need to consume foods

Overall very little chemical digestion occurs in the human mouth

True

Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy

False

Why are phospholipids not an essential nutrient?

Our bodies manufacture phospholipids

What is the function of the bicarbonate that is released into the duodenum during the process of digestion?

To neutralize the acidic chyme

Often called the cells powerhouse, the ribosome produces the energy molecule ATP from basic food components

False

The wavelike contractions that move food along the GI tract are called

Peristalsis

The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called _________

Transamination

Two amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by product of this process?

Water

Once food is swallowed, a tiny flap of tissue called the _______keeps it from entering the trachea

Epiglottis

Where in the body are the majority of trigylcerides stored for future energy needs?

Adipose tissue

Protein _______ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins

Turnover

The term that describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain is ___________

Monounsaturated

Which of the following is not on of the foods that contains protein derived from one of the major allergenic foods?

Chocolate

The widespread inflammatory reaction caused by eating a food to which one is allergic can result in an anaphylactic shock that, left untreated, is nearly always fatal

True

Sugar alcohols are most often used in which product

Chewing Gums

The term complex carbohydrates refers to

Polysaccharides

A diet high in simple sugars has been show to increase both triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood?

True

Which of the following is an example of a soluble fiber?

Pectins

Tight rings of muscles that control the movement of food through the organs of the gastrointestinal tract are

Sphincters

Wheat is the only grain that people with celiac disease have to carefully avoid

False

Individuals with celiac disease must eat gluten free foods, which can be made from

Rice and Potato Flour

In the body, buffers are very important in

Maintaining acid base balance in the body

Which of the following foods is a source of complete protein?

Chicken

A proteins ________ structure refers to the twisting, spiral shape formed by the sequence and chemical properties of its amino acids

Secondary

Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat?

Butter

Plant foods tend to be high in ________ fats

Unsaturated

Bile is released into the ______ in response to the ingestion of fat in the diet

Small Intestine

Cells are the smallest functional units of life that can grow, reproduce and perform basic functions

True

When a protein attracts or releases hydrogen, it acts as a/n

Buffer

The lining of the small intestine is smooth and flat, allowing for increased transit time of food material?

False

Sex homones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid

Sterols

A/n _______ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food

Fortified

The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a/n ________ amino acid

Limiting

Fructose is also known as

Levulose

Under normal physiological conditions, every cell of the body is capable of making each type of protein needed by the body

False

Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?

Antibodies

Many lactose intolerant people can digest aged cheese and yogurt with live, active cultures without any gastrointestinal side effects

True

Alkalosis is a condition in which the pH of the blood becomes too basic

True

Which of the following is most likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?

A 29 year old woman who is 6 months pregnant

An acid base imbalance can result in ________

coma and death

The insoluble fiber that provides the main structural component of plant cell walls is _________

Cellulose

To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as ________

Bile

Only plants can synthesize cholesterol

False

Which lipoprotein transports dietary fat out of the small intestine?

Chylomicron

Diets high in _______ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer

Saturated

The primary function of mucus in the stomach is to

Protect the stomach cells from gastric juices (HCI)

Irritable Bowl Syndome (IBS) always manifests itself by diarrhea, bloating and abdominal cramps

False

The cell membrane is selectively permeable, allowing only some compounds to enter and leave the cell

True

What is the cephalic phase?

Earliest phase of digestion when the brain prepares the body in anticipation of food

Combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete protein is called ___________ supplementation

Mutual

Hypoglycemia is seen only in people with type 1 diabetes

False

Individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame, Why?

People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine

All of the following are symptoms/side effects of ketosis except

High Blood cholesterol

Secreted from many glands of the body, _______ are chemical messengers that trigger a physiological response

Hormones

Which part of an individual amino acid distinguishes it from other amino acids?

Side Chain

During the process of photosynthesis, _____________ is the step in which messenger RNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence at the cells ribosome

Translation

Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because ______ intake is sufficient

Carbohydrate

Which of the following foods contain invisible fats?

Chocolate Cake

The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for fat is ________ of total energy intake

20-35 percent

Lipids can be either solid or liquid at room temperature

True

The term that describes a fatty acid containing one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain is ________

Monounsaturated

What is the name of the sphincter that seperates the stomach from the small intestine

Pyloric

All of the following would be recommended for the treatment of GERD except

Eating 2 large meals a day

Most dietary fiber is absorbed in the small intestine

False

EPA and DHA are metabolic derivatives of ________

Alpha-Linolenic Acid

Which of the following statements is true about trans fatty acids?

They are created during hydrogenation process

Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature

Saturated

Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids?

Margarine made from corn of safflower oil

Lactose is composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of ________

Galactose

A type of protein energy malnutrition that results from a short term deficiency of protein is ____________

Kwashiorkor

A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

Two Monosaccharides

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