kimberlys bio-plants

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A special adaptation for plant life on dry land that protects from drying

Waxy Cuticle

_________ is the gas exchange organelle

Stomata

Is used for transporting water

Xylem

Is used for transporting food (sugar)

Phloem

The 1st category of plants

Bryophytes

The 2nd category of plants

Pteridophytes

3rd category of plants

Gymnosperm

4th category of plants

angiosperm

_________of _________ is a terrestrial adaptation

Alteration of generations

the male gametophyte

antheridia

the female gametophyte

archegonia

T/F: The plant kingdom is monophyletic

True

Mosses and liverworts are an example of ?

Bryophytes

Bryophytes are vascular or nonvascular

nonvascular

Do Bryophytes have a water transport system?

NO

How do bryophytes fertilize?

swimming sperm

Bryophyte life cycle is dominated by what stage?

Haploid gametophyte

What is a thick filament of spores called?

Protonema

What are the first vascular plants called?

Pteridophytes

Do Pteridophytes have a water transport system?

Yes

Ferns are an example of what?

Pteridophytes

The Pteridophytes life cycle is dominated by what stage?

Sporophyte

What is it called when the male and female are on the same plant (one spore)?

homospory

What are produced by the decay of seedless plants?

coal and oil

What are conifers considered?

Gymnosperm

Are gymnosperm vascular or non-vascular?

vascular

Are gymnosperm hetero or homo spory?

heterospory

what kind of seed do gymnosperm have?

naked seeds

what contains the male gametophyte?

pollen

The gymnosperm is dominated by what life cycle?

sporophyte

What is reduction of gametophyte?

protection of the egg and embryo in a sporophyte

The sporophyte embryo is packaged along with food supply in a protective coat called a ?

seed

all seed have 2 spores, what are they?

megaspore; microspore

what is the megaspore?

female

what is the microspore?

male

what is the integument + megasporangium + megaspore called?

ovule

what eliminates the need for water?

pollen

what two ways are pollen spread?

wind; animal

what are the first flowering plants called?

Angiosperm

Are angiosperm vascular or non-vascular?

vascular

Are angiosperm hetero or homo spory?

heterospory

What is the specialized structure of an angiosperm for sexual reproduction?

flower

what are the seed within in an angiosperm?

fruit

What is the Angiosperms life cycle dominated by?

Sporophyte

what are the two types of angiosperm?

monocots; dicots

Monocots vs Dicots: which has 1 cotyledon?

monocot

Monocots vs Dicots: which has leaves with a network of veins

dicot

Monocots vs Dicots: which has fibrous roots

monocots

Monocots vs Dicots: which has vascular bundles in a circle

dicot

Monocots vs Dicots: Which has vascular bundles scattered?

monocot

Monocots vs Dicots: petals in 3x

monocot

Monocots vs Dicots: parallel leaves

monocot

Monocots vs Dicots: netted veins

dicot

Monocots vs Dicots: 2 cotyledons

dicot

Monocots vs Dicots: tap root

dicot

Monocots vs Dicots: 4x-5x petals

dicot

What are lilies, grasses, orchids and palms

monocots

What are roses, beans, sunflowers and oaks

dicots

what part of the plant is aerial

shoot

what part of the plant is subterranean

root

What are the 4 purposes of roots

anchor plant, absorb nutrients, store food, increase surface area

what is the alternating system of nodes and internodes called

stem

The potential to form a new branch is called?

axillary bud

The growth of young shoots is called?

terminal bud

terminal buds inhibit the growth of axillary buds

apical dominance

what is the main organ for photosynthesis?

leaves

what is the dermal tissue of a plant called?

epidermis

what are the vascular tissue of plants called?

xylem and phloem

what is the ground tissue of a plant called?

parenchyma

what tissue has photosynthesis and storage and support?

parenchyma

what are "typical" plant cells called

parenchyma

what is the function of parenchyma

perform metabolic functions

what are unevenly thickened primary walls called?

collenchyma

what is the function of collenchyma

provide support and allow growth

what are the hardened secondary walls called?

sclerechyma

what is the function of sclerechyma

support; dead

what is an example of scelernchyma

fibers

which meristems are for primary growth and length?

apical meristems

which meristems are for secondary growth (girth)

lateral meristems

What produces secondary xylem/phloem

vascular cambium

what produces tough, thick covering

cork cambium

what is the protective coat of secondary plant body called?

periderm

which nutrients are needed in large quantity

macronutrients

which nutrients are needed in small quantities

micronutrients

what is the A horizon composed of?

topsoil; living organisms

where is humus found?

A horizon

what is in the B horizon?

less organic

what is in the C horizon?

parent material

what is a symbiotic association of fungi and roots called?

mycorrhizae

what is the development of the body form and organization?

morphogenesis

what is the development of specific structures in specific locations?

pattern formation

what are signals that indicate the appropriate location and development of cells?

Positional information

what are channels for the passage of water called?

Aquaporins

what is osmosis?

the diffusion of water from a high concentration to a low concentration

what is the movement of water through a plant from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure called?

bulk flow

what is the evaporation of water from a plant called?

transpiration

what is the belt of suberin that blocks the passage of water and dissolved minerals called?

Casparian Strip

water molecules tug on each other

cohesion

water molecules adhering to the hydrophilic walls of the xylem cells?

adhesion

cohesion and adhesion are possible because of what type of bonds

hydrogen

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