NASM Chapter 4 Human Movement

35 terms by cassborn

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Biomechanics

biomechanics

a study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body

superior

positioned above a point of reference

inferior

positioned below a point of reference

proximal

positioned nearest the center of the body, or point of reference

distal

positioned farthest from the center of the body, or point of reference

anterior (or ventral)

on the front of the body

posterior (or dorsal)

on the back of the body

medial

positioned near the middle of the body

lateral

toward the outside of the body

contralateral

positioned on the opposite side of the body

ipsilateral

positioned on the same side of the body

sagittal

an imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves

extension

the bending of a joint, causing the angles to the joint to increase

frontal plane

divides body into front and back

abduction

movement of a body part away the middle of the body

adduction

movement of a body part toward the middle of the body

transverse plane

divides the body top and bottom

internal rotation

rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body

eccentric contraction

the lengthening of a muscle

isometric contraction

a muscle maintaining a certain length

concentric contraction

the shortening of a muscle

force

an influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object

length-tension relationship

the length at which a muscle can produce the greatest force

force-couple

muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint

rotary motion

movement of the bones around the joints

torque

a force that produces rotation

motor behavior

the process of the body responding to internal and external stimuli

motor control

the study of posture and movement and the involved structures and mechanisms that the central nervous system uses to assimilate and integrate sensory information with previous experience

synergies

groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement

proprioception

the cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movement

sensorimotor integration

the cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering information, interpreting, and executing movement

motor learning

repeated practice of motor control processes, which lead to a change in the ability to produce complex movements

feedback

the use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the kinetic chain in motor learning

external feedback

information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart monitor to supplement the internal environment

internal feedback

the process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment

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