Pneumonia

Created by Pignone86 

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27 terms · chapter `5 des jardins

Anatomic Alterations

Inflammatory process
Primarily affects gas exchange portions of lung
Effusion
Surface phagocytosis
Macrophage movement
Consolidation
Atelectasis

Etiology

8th leading cause of death in America
Bacteria
Virus
Fungi
Tuberculosis
Anaerobic organisms
Aspiration
Irritating chemicals

Classifications of pneumonia

Lobar pneumonia
Double pneumonia
Walking pneumonia

Bacterial causes
Gram-positive
Streptococcal pneumonia
Staphylococcal pneunomia
Gram-negative
Haemophilus influenzae
Klebsiella pneumonia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Escherichia coli

Gram-positive
Streptococcal pneumonia
Staphylococcal pneunomia

Bacterial causes

Gram-negative
Haemophilus influenzae
Klebsiella pneumonia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Escherichia coli

Bacterial causes

Atypical
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila

Bacterial causes

Anaerobic
Peptostreptococcus Aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions and gastric fluids are the major causes of anaerobic lung infections.Predisposing risks are impaired swallow, gastrointestinal abnormalities, and poor dental hygiene.

Viral causes
Influenza virus
Respiratory syncytial virus - RSV
Parainfluenza virus
Coronavirus

Influenza virus
Respiratory syncytial virus - RSV
Parainfluenza virus
Coronavirus

Aspiration Pneumonitis
Toxic injury to the lung
Obstruction of airway
Infection

GERD
Dysphagia
Silent aspiration

Toxic injury to the lung
Obstruction of airway
Infection

GERD
Dysphagia
Silent aspiration

Others
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Fungal infections
Thrush
Avian influenza A

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
Fungal infections
Thrush
Avian influenza A

Classifications
Community-Acquired
Hospital-Acquired
Ventilator-Acquired
Nursing Home-Acquired

Community-Acquired
Hospital-Acquired
Ventilator-Acquired
Nursing Home-Acquired

Management
Based on
Specific cause
Severity of symptoms
Antibiotics (bacterial)
Bed rest
Fluids
Reduce symptoms
RT
Oxygen therapy
Bronchopulmonary hygiene
Lung expansion
thoracentesis

Based on
Specific cause
Severity of symptoms
Antibiotics (bacterial)
Bed rest
Fluids
Reduce symptoms
RT
Oxygen therapy
Bronchopulmonary hygiene
Lung expansion
thoracentesis

Gram Positive Organisms

Strep = 80% of all bacterial pnuemonia
Staph = MRSA Nosocomial

Gram Negative Organisms

Haemophilus Influenza = Pharyngeal or Epiglottitus
Klebsiella = Drunks and septicemia

Pseudomonas Aruginosa

Found in RT equipment sweet sick smell

E Coli

Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

Atypical Organisms

Mycoplasma pneumonia or walking pneumonia
Legionella = muddy water or air conditioning/middle aged men who smoke

Anaerobic Bacterial Infections

Aspiration Pneumonia

Viral Causes

Approximately half of all pneumonia are caused by viruses
Influenza Virus= come in Epidemic waves during school year and winter
RSV= infants catchy and leads to life of asthma
Parainfluenza type 1 causes croup
Sars - Corona virus

Other Causes

Aspiration Pneumonia causes
-Toxic Injury to the lung
-obstruction
-Infection

GERD

Causes vagal stimulation and can exacerbate or cause an asthma attack.

Normal Swallowing Mechanism

Oral preparation
Oral
Pharyngeal
Esophageal

Dysphagia

Result of an abnormal swallow that can involve oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases.

Silent Aspiration

Usually due to stroke or trached patients
this is caused by an inability to cough effectively

Pneumocystis Carinii

AIDS this is a fungus and not a protozoa

FUNGAL INFECTIONS

Avian Influenza
CAP /strep/48 hours prior to hospital admission
HAP/staph/48 hours after hospital admission
VAP/ vents nosocomial
NAP/ nursing homes staph and TB (latent)

General Management

Antibiotics
RT Care
Pulmonary Hygiene
Lung expansion therapy
Thoracentesis

Flickr Creative Commons Images

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