Applied Sport Psychology
psychology factors that influence performance in sport. it is used when preparing, engaging, or reflecting in sport
Why use sport psychology
learn, way to manage competitive stress, control concentration, improve confidence, increase communication, team harmony
Motor Skill Learning
a set of internal processes, associated with practice or experience, leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability for skilled movement behavior.
development of basic movement pattern
visual learning (video,demonstrations)
skill mastery/elite performance
skill becomes second nature
performance is automatic
COACH-motivate,work on level of skills, dont just go through the motions
Progressive Part Practice
learn first two (separately), combine, learn 3rd(separate), combine, learn 4th(separate) combine
information athletes receive as a natural consequence of moving, provided by the athletes' own sensory system.
EX. feeling shooting the ball, hear hitting rim, see into the basket
information athletes receive that is not a natural consequence of executing a response. provided by external source (coach,teammate,judges score, videotape replay)
ABC's of Behavior Control
if antecedents (environmental stimuli) (A) are present AND behavior (B) is enacted, THEN a particular consequence (C) will occur.
considers in part the manner in which our behaviors are influenced by their consequences.
EX pavlov, ring bell then feed dog, salivation
antecedents that signal the likely consequences of particular behaviors in given situation
start with what is capable of being done, then gradually more skillful level. (demands must be realistic) encourage and guide to desired outcome
person's judgment about her or his capability to successfully person a particular task
6 Elements of Self-Efficacy
watching someone. 'if they can i can'
professionals. EX children watching, wanting to be like them
'rise of the occasion', look at pressure and be able to handle it. perform or let pressure get you
perform at one's best
how to accomplish task
compare to task
preoccupied with adequacy oh their ability
comparison to others
internal. participation is self-determined and is inspired by personal pleasure from activity
1. coach forms expectation
2. coaches' expectation affects their behavior
3. coaches' behavior affects athlete's performance/behavior
4. athlethe's performance conforms to the coach's expectations
belief you can improve talent and develop through practice and training
a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true.
EX (biased coaching) preason judgements (underestimate athletes ability) lead to their expectations to become reality
leader is viewed as a facilitator who helps others achieve their goals by providing a path by which the followers can reach their goals
team (sport groups)
2 of more individuals
common identity, fate, goals
structured pattern of interaction/modes of communication
sommon perception about group structure
reciprocate interpersonal attraction
consider themselves to be a group
tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs
individual's perception about the closeness, similarity, and bonding within the group as a total unit, set, or collection. ('we' and 'us' evaluations)
individual attractions to the group
individual's person attraction to the group, and what personal motivations act to retain an individual in the group
factors to consider when examining cohesion in sport teams
roles - set of behaviors that are expected from people with specific positions within a group
evolve as a result of the interactions that take place amoung group members. EX enforcer, comedian, team player, distracter
degree to which athletes understand or do not understand what constitues their role.
lack clear, consistent info reguarding one's role
behavior which exceeds one's average performance OR an episode of superior functioning
characteristics of peak performance
feelings of success
focus on present task
view difficult tasks as exciting/challenging
productive perfectionism(expectations but learn)
first step to gaining control in pressure situation. focus on task at hand, not end result (anxiety) [focus of attention]
removal of adverse stimuli (avoid bad things)
EX abusive coach
previous reinforced behaviors are no longer recognized, likely to stop occurring
EX athlete stop getting attention for inappropriate behavior, likely to stop that behavior
aware of experience + optimal level, control and monitor excitement and channel that energy into performance.
adjust as needed
balancing important to max performance
objective or aim of action by attaining a specific standard of proficiency on a task, usually has a time limit
relationship between goal setting and performance
set goals, perform, adjust.
1. direct athletes attention/action into important parts of task
2. help athlete mobilize effort
3. help prolong effort, increase persistence
4. develop new learning strategies
goals should be...
have target date
enhances sport performance by using senses to create or re-create an experience in the mind.
*is a supplement not a replacement
evidence imagery works
enhances performance learning
enhances thoughts and emotions
successful athletes use it