Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression
Emergency Banking Act
Passed in 1933, created a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen banks that were strong enough to survive
Agriculture Adjustment Act
1933 - this act had two goals - to raise farm prices quickly and to control production so that farm prices would stay up over the long term. This group paid farmers to destroy crops, milk, and livestock/not farm to raise prices. It paid subsidies to make up for the money they lost. This was ruled unconstitutional in 1936 for invading the reserved powers of the states.
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Relief: 1932; headed by Harry Hopkins; fought adult unemployment, gave money away, short term solution to unemployment; gave state/localities $3.1 billion; 20,000,000 got work; lasted from May 1933 to December 1935
Public Works Administration
(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
Civil Works Administration
Aimed at creating jobs and restoring self-respect by handing out pay envelopes instead of relief checks. In reality, workers sometimes performed worthless tasks, known as "boondoggles." However, much of the $1 billion budget was spent on projects of lasting value such as airports and roads.
Securities & Exchange Commission
An independent agency of the government that regulates financial markets and investment companies
Conservatives who did not agree with Roosevelt, they wanted government to let business alone and play a less active role in the economy
Schechter v. US (1935)
(1935). Also known as the "Sick Chicken Case," Hughes posed three major questions: 1. Did the economic crisis create extraordinary governmental power to the president? 2. Had Congress lawfully delegated powers to the president? 3. Did the act exceed the government's authority under the Commerce Act. Court ruled Yes to all and it kills the NRA.
American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.
Social Security Act of 1935
Created both the Social Security program and a national assistance program for poor children.
Father Charles Coughlin
a critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system
Huey Long/Share our Wealth Society
A senator who proposed his "Share Our Wealth" plan in 1932 which was a 100% tax on yearly incomes over $1 million to give everyone a comfortable living. Supporters created the "Share Our Wealth" Society.
Second New Deal
a new set of programs and reforms launched by FDR in 1935; changed American life even more than the hundred days
reestablished collective bargaining. Projected the rights of workers to join unions and engage in collective bargaining.
Social Security Act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Works Progress Administration
The largest New Deal agency, employing millions of people and affecting most every locality, especially rural and western mountain populations. It was created in April, 1935 by Presidential order, and activated with Congressional funding in July of that year (U.S. Congress funded it annually but did not set it up)
Revenue Act of 1935
This reform act increased the income tax of the wealthy, the taxes on gifts from parent to child, and on capital gains (profits from sale of stocks and other property.)
attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
Economic downturn in 1937 which happened when FDR tried to reduce government spending on relief and job programs
John Maynard Keynes
Believed that governments have to pump money into the economy when the economy is in a downturn, even running deficits if necessary.
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
created by John L. Lewis for unskilled labor, organized "sit-down strike" against GM to work for recognition
He was a miner known for creating the United Mine Workers. He helped found the CIO and was responsible for the Fair Labor Standards Act.
United Automobile Workers
they successfully ran a "sit-down" strike against General Motors, afterward General Motors recognized them followed by other auto manufacturers expect Ford who held out until 1941. Membership increased for 88,000 to 400,000.
Memorial Day Massacre
police shot and killed ten demonstrators in Chicago, on May 30, 1937, took place during the "Little Steel Strike" in the United States, the incident arose after U.S. Steel signed a union contract, but smaller steel manufacturers called, Little Steel, called for a strike, on Memorial Day, hundreds of sympathizers gathered at Sam's Place, headquarters of Steel Workers Organizing Committee, as the crowd marched across the prairie towards the Republic Steel mill, a line of Chicago policeman blocked their path, when the foremost protestors argued their right to continue, police fired on the crowd, as the crowd fled, police bullets killed ten people
U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet.
campaigned for FDR to gain more female voters, economic and social recovery that was best for men and women, expanded Democratic base to more women
1st lady, political activist for racial equality
1935, helped resettle destitute farmers on better land and unemployed workers in planned communities after the dust bowl
Mary Mcleod bethune
a member of the Black Cabinet and was appointed director of the Division of Negro Affairs in the NYA
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
This new law encouraged Indian tribes to establish local self-governments and to preserve their native crafts and traditions. The act also helped to stop the loss of Indian lands and revived tribes' interest in their identity and culture.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
soil protection provided by rows of planted vegetation between strips
Rural Electrification Administration
1935; made electricity available at low rates to American farm families in areas that private power companies refused to service.
Federal Art Project
Paid artists a living wage to produce public art. It also aimed to increase public appreciation of art to promote positive images of American society. It was part of the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program.
Federal Music Project
Community symphonies, free music lessons, preserve music heritage. It was part of the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program.
Federal Writers' Project
Federal government project to fund written work and support writers during the Great Depression. It was part of the Works Progress Administration, a New Deal program. It was one of a group of New Deal arts programs known collectively as Federal One.
New Deal Coalition
Coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.