Chapter 7:Life Histories and Evolutionary Fitness

23 terms by mvogel36 

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Life History

The schedule of an individual's life-age at maturiy, number of offspring, life span

Trade-offs

A consequence of devoting limited time, energy, or materials to one structure, function, or behavior at the expence of another

Allocation

The division of limited time, energy, or materials among competing functions or requiremtnts

maturity

Acquisition of reproductive function, or the age at which this occurs

parity

The number of episodes of reproduction in an individual's

fecundity

The number of offspring produced per reproductive episodes

longevity

The life span of an individual

determinate growth

A growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow only until it reaches maturity

indeterminate growth

A growth pattern in which an individual continues to grow, usually at a decreasign rate, after maturity.

programmed death

Death as part of a semelparous life history

semelparity

A life history characterized by a single, terminal reproductive episode.

iteroparity

A life history characterized by multiple reproductive episodes

bet heding

Reducing the risk of mortality or reproductive failure in a variable environment by adopting an intermediate strategy or several alternative strategies simultaneously, or by spreading on's risk over time and space

senescence

Gradual deterioration of physiological function with age, leading to increased probability of death, aging.

dormancy

A physiologically inactive state, such as hibernation, diapause or seed dormany, usually assuemd when conditions do not allow the organism to function normally

hibernate

A state of winer dormancy involvign lowered body temperature and metabolism

diapause

Temporary interruption of development or physiological function, usually associated with a period of unfavorable environmental conditions

proximate factors

An aspected of the environment that the organism uses as a cue for behavior, but which does not directly affect the organism's fitness

ultimate factors

An aspect of the environment that directly affects the fitness of an organism

photoperiod

the length of the daylight period in a 24 hour day

optimal foraging

A theoretical concept that seeks to explain foraging behavior in terms of the fitness costs and benefits of each possible alternatvie behavior

central place foraging

foraging behavior in which acquired food is brought to a central place, such as a nest with young

risk-sensitive foraging

foraging behavior that is influenced by the presence of predators or risk of predation

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