What are the memorial reasons for making art?
The wish to leave behind something of value to be remembered by
What are the reasons that art is valued?
What is art's material value?
Made of gold or bronze that can be made into weapons
What is art's intrinsic value?
The assessment of the artist
Its aesthetic character
What is art's religious value?
Works depicting gods and goddesses
What is art's nationalistic value?
Expressing the pride and accomplishment off a certain culture
What is naturalism?
Something whose depiction is true to life
What is a representational/figurative depiction?
Art shows recognizable natural forms or created objects
What is illusionistic depiction?
Where the art's purpose is to fool the eye
What are the comparisons between artists and gods?
Both are seen as creators
Gods have been represented as artists
Comparison has inspired legends of rivalry between both
What are the archaeological dating techniques?
What is stratigraphy?
Geological study of the layers/strata of the earth
Objects deposited in these layers can be dated
Older materials in a deposit are found lower
Can relate horizontally for clues to cultural patterns
Vertically for chronology
What is seriation?
Based on reconstruction of changes in style or type that can be observed in archaeological artifacts over time
What is dendrochronology?
The study of information in the annual growth layers of trees
Each ring corresponds to one year's growth
Valuable in N. America & Europe the most
What is radiocarbon dating?
Provides method of determining the actual age of carbonized wood and other organic materials like antler, bone, & shell
Radiocarbon/carbon 14 begins to decay when organisms die, so when u measure it you can tell the age
What does every organism have a trace of?
What is the half-life of radiocarbonis?
Why does radiocarbon dating apply to cave art?
Because paint pigment is almost always mineral
What is archaeometry?
Analytical techniques are applied from physical sciences and engineering to archaeological materials
Close cooperations between archaeologists and experts in other fields is necessary
Work facilitated by computer analysis since it can store a bunch of data
What is archaeology?
The study of beginnings that aims to reconstruct history from physical remains of past cultures
What other fields contribute to archaeology?
What is art history?
The study of the history of visual arts
Why is art history important?
Grouped into styles in the west
Used by archaeologists studying life, religion, and war
Shows much about layers of cultures and is of importance to historians
What are the methodologies of art?
Iconography & Iconology
Biography & Autobiography
What is formalism?
Viewing works of art independently of their context and function and considering form to be content
Responds to formal elements andaesthetics that arrangements of the elements create
What is iconography?
Emphasizes content over form in individual works of art
What is iconology?
Refers to the interpretation of a group of works
What is a group of works called?
What is marxism?
Studies the relationship of art to economic factors
What is semiology?
The science of signs
What periods is the stone age in Western Europe divided into?
Meaning old stone
What three periods is paleolithic divided into?
Lower (1,500,000 million years ago)
Middle (100,000/200,000 years ago)
Upper (45,000/50,000 years ago)
From 8,000 to 6000 BC in SE Europe
8,000 to 4,000 BC
From 6000/4000 to 2000 BC
How do they designate the prehistoric periods?
People's dependence on tools and weapons made of stone
What is the stone age?
When the peak of the technology that we're using is based on stone
When was the Upper Paleolithic period?
50,000/45,000 -- 8000 BC
Talk about the new vs. old homo sapiens
Homo sapiens sapiens replaced earlier homo sapiens
What were the ritual burial practices of the upper paleolithic?
Red ocher was sprinkled on corpses (blood)
Various objects of personal adornment were buried with them
Bodies were arranged in the fetal position, often oriented toward the east and the rising sun (sign of belief in life after death)
How were upper Paleolithic cultures nomadic?
They hunted and gathered and moved place to place
Built shelters at cave entrances & under rocky overhangs
Tents made of animal skins
Huts of mud, plant fibers, stone, and bone
How did the Upper paleolithic art begin?
Making symbolic marks on hard surfaces like stone and bone to possibly keep track of time
What did mark to keep track of time suggest?
That a language had been developed, since it requires a sense of sequence and time
When are the earliest surviving works of western art?
During the final stages of the Ice Age in Europe
When did we begin to see Upper Paleolithic Sculpture?
What was Upper Paleolithic Sculpture like?
Small sculptures of ivory, bone, clay, & stone
Depicted humans, animals, and composites
Very technically skilled
Spear throwers, musical instruments, objects of personal adornment
Where did all homo sapiens come from?
East Africa/Eastern Rift Valley
How long have modern humans existed?
How long have humans been in the Near East?
How long have humans been in Eastern Europe?
How long has it been since humans more fully occupied Europe?
What social groups did the Upper Paleolithics have?
What is a band?
About 15--25 people
What type of population did the Upper Paleolithics have?
Not used to seeing very many people
What marks the Upper Paleolithic period?
Better intellect than previous homo neandertolis
Compare and contrast the homo neandertolis and homo sapiens.
They had different skulls
Homo sapiens had better intellect
Homo neandertolis couldn't throw overhand and had limited tools so they couldn't cook their food
Women and men homo neandertolis were both just as likely to be hunters while the homo sapiens women were gatherers and men were hunters
They occupied the same place
When did homo neandertols start to disappear?
What is the theory on why homo neandertols went extinct?
That the homo sapiens were just so much better that the neandertols were outcompeted and driven to extinction
Why are homo sapiens most importantly different?
By they made art
What marks the appearance of art?
Chauvet Cave (32,000--17,000 BC)
What were the characteristics of the middle of the last ice age?
The average global temp. was 10 degree Celsius colder than today
People hunted big game
Southern France was basically a tundra
Didn't have permanent architecture
What percent of a caveman's diet came from meat?
What time of game did they hunt?
Large herbivores like rhinos, mammoths, mastodons, arochs, giant sloths, cave bears ,and dire wolf
What are mega fauna?
The big game 'cave men' hunted
End of the last Ice Age
Went extinct by 11,000 BC
What helped the nomads move?
What were the trends to the way the nomads move?
They follow the game which moves back and forth on the same trails
How is the myth of cavemen false?
People didn't live in caves
Took advantage of the openings for temp. shelter
Lived out in the open
Caves used for cave art
What was the division of labor?
How were the homo sapiens sophisticated?
Knew how to deal with the world around them
Similar to you and I
Made everything they had
What is rock art?
Any kind of painting or engraving
What are two ways of dating rock art?
What is iconography?
The study of subject matter
What helps mineral bind to the wall?
Water and egg when you make tempera
Tree sap when you make oil
Chemical substance like superglue when you make acrylic
What is the binder?
Usually an organic material (has carbon 14)
What does all paint possess?
What does CE stand for?
What does BCE stand for?
Before the common era
What AD stand for?
The days of Christ
The study of subject matter and the things that are in it
When is the entrance of the Chauvet Cave thought to have collapsed around?
What time were there no horses?
11,000 -- 3,000 BC
When did we begin to see small-scale sculptures across Europe?
35,000 years ago
What were the characteristics of these small scale sculptures?
Almost only zoomorphic
Include 3-D & relief sculptures
What does zoomorphic mean?
When do we begin to see many sculptures of fired clay?
When do we begin to see Venus sculptures?
What are anthropomorphic images?
Images of people
About how many Venus Sculptures do we have?
What are the characteristics of the Venus sculptures?
Had face covered or no face at all
Exaggerated boobs & hips--linked w/fertility
Also thighs and public area
Named after Venus by discoverers, Roman goddess of love and beauty
Naturalistic or abstract
Could be used for ritual exchange
Some were found wearing jewelry
Body type shows they had life easy, someone had to do their work for them, hierarchy
What is carving?
Subtractive technique where a sculptor uses a sharp instrument to remove material from a hard substance
After it can be sanded, filed, or polished
Are most prehistoric sculptures in the round or reliefs?
In the round
What are the different categories of sculpture?
Sculpture in the round
What is a sculpture in the round?
Any sculpture that is completely detached from its original material so it can be seen from all sides
What is a sculpture in relief?
Any sculpture partly attached to its original material and there is at least one angle at which it can't be seen from
How is a relief sculpture more pictorial?
Because some of the original material is still there and forms a background
What are different degrees of relief?
What is high relief?
The image stands out far from the background plane
What is low relief?
Shallower, closer to the background plane
Not as sharply defined as high relief
What is a sunken relief?
Image or its outline is slightly recessed into the surface plane
What is pigment?
The basis of color
The most eye-catching aspect of most paintings
Means 'to paint'
Colored powders made from organic or inorganic substances
Either applied directly to damp walls or mixed with a liquid medium or binder to adhere them to dry walls
What is the medium/binder?
A liquid where pigments are suspended but not dissolved that binds the pigment particles together and helps paint adhere to surfaces, increasing the durability of images
Animal fats, vegetable juices, water, or blood
What is a support?
Pigment applied to the surface of a painting
Paper, canvas, pottery, faces, body, walls
What are most of the portable representations of animals?
What is modeling?
Additive process and its materials are pliable ot hard
Tools are usu. artist's hands
Until the material dries and hardens it can be reshaped
Clay that's been heated/fired in a kiln is more durable & waterproof
When was there Upper Paleolithic Painting in Spain and France?
Where are most surviving cave paintings located?
Over 200 caves in the cliffs of N. Spain & Pyrenees Mountains
Perigord and Dordogne regions in France
Where are the surviving paintings mostly found?
Deep within the caves as a sanctuary for fertility, initiation, and human rituals, or where seasonal changes were recorded
What did animal representations show the importance of?
What 2 Upper Paleolithic caves were disc. in the 1980s & 1990s in S. & SE. FrancE?
What is the first group of cave paintings as Cosquer cave dated to?
What is one of the most unusual features of the cave art in Cosquer cave/
When was Cosquer cave disc.?
When was Chauvet cave disc.?
What type of cave was Cosquer cave?
121 ft. below sea level
What type of cave was Chauvet cave?
Underground cave complex and interior chamber inside
What is significant about Chauvet cave?
Largest cave known so far in this region
Has over 300 cave art stuff
When was the art in Chauvet cave dated to?
What do Upper Paleolithic caves in Southern France and Northern Spain represent mainly?
Animals and some signs (red dots & handsprings)
What is Pech-Merle?
An underground complex in use for about 5,000 years
Several handprints were found on the walls, made by pressing against a damp clay wall to leave an impression
Shamans function as intermediaries between the human and spirit world
Communicate with spirits by entering a trance
They are induced by rhythmic movement or sound
One or more spirits possess them
Revered as healers and problems solvers
Feared if angered
Fortell future, cure sick, help with birth and death
Live on the fringe of society
Don't participate in religion
Wear ritual costumes made of animal skins and horns or antlers and carry ritual objects
Not a religion, but a practice used by some religions
Specialist in techniques of ecstasy
Technique used to interact with the spirit world on behalf of this world
Slow transformation from human to animal
Found in almost all small-scale societies
What is Trois-Freres?
Cave where Shaman picture was found
What are the 3 stages that Shaman trance states occur?
1) Hallucinations of little geometric patterns
2) Hallucinations of iconic imagery
Between stage 2 and 3 subjects go thru a vortex of light
3) Hallucinations that combine imagery from stage one and stage 2
What is the most popular way that a shaman/human enters trance?
What are other ways they enter trance?
Bleed out on a bowl of prayers then set them on fire
Substance abuse of alcohol or hallucinogens
What caves are full of cave art?
Limestone cliffs in France
Where did most of the cave paintings come from?
The Ice Age
What changed coming to the end of the Ice Age?
Hunting technology improved
We went from throwing large spears to Atlatls
Megafauna was going away
What is a atlatl?
Dart-thrower that propelled darts
Had a little hook at the end that threw the dart at a faster speed
Where are the most famous examples of cave art in France?
What are the characteristics of the cave art at Lascaux?
Wide range of animal species and a few human stick figures painted w/earth colored pigments
Pigments ground from ocher, hematite, and manganese applied to natural white limestone walls
First drew outline and then filled figures in w/pigment
Pigment in hollow bones plugged at 1 end, blew pigment onto the walls
When was Lascaux Cave disc.?
What happened when Lascaux was opened up for public viewing in the 1950s?
After 10 years it had been destroyed and started having weird growth on the walls
Gallons of water washed into the cave with a lot of bacteria
What do you see when you first walk in Lascaux Cave?
Hall of Bulls
What was the most commonly painted imagery?
How many rock art sites are there in Europe?
Thousands and thousands
How many painted caves are there in Europe?
What are the majority of the representational motifs?
What is most European rock art?
What is the most common type of cave painting?
Nonrepresentational, geometric motifs
What was barley used to make?
What was mesopotamia, the agricultural revolution started by?
Why is the explanation for the disc. of beer?
Collecting barley for nutrition
Had to put it in a jug
Left it there
When it becomes full w/liquid it's beer
When was the Mesolithic period?
What was the mesolithic period of?
What is the mesolithic period noteworthy for?
Cultural and environmental changes
Followed end of the Ice Age and rapidly started development of temperate climate
Forests had expanded
Ppl started to congregate around bodies of water for fishing for food
By the end, nomads had settled, differing, agri. communities
When was the Neolithic period from?
What did we start seeing in the Neolithic period?
Monumental stone architecture
What is the most impressive architecture?
Limestone tombs and temples on malta
Megaliths found in France, Spain, Italy, & N. Eur.
When are megaliths on Malta and Gozo?
Before 3,000 BC
How many temples have been excavated at Malta?
What are the characteristics of the temples at Malta?
Show evidence of libations, divination, collective human burial, & priesthood
Animal sacrifices performed
Paintings and sculptures on walls
The Neolithic period can't be described w/o...
What were elements of the Neolithic Revolution?
1) Sedentism (nomad to permanent)
2) Plant and animal husbandry
3) Permanent architecture
5) Megalithic monuments
When did the population increase?
What is a sherd
Piece of broken pottery
We can determine the size of the vessel and what was kept in them
When did the Neolithic revolution start in the Ancient Near East?
What is the Neolithic revolution also referred to while it is spreading across Europe slowly?
What are megalithic monuments?
Simple alignments (rocks in a line) most common
Reminders of the past
Have symbolic associations
Stone was an important part of cults honoring dead ancestors
Where are the greatest concentration of standing monuments?
What is Camac?
Near the coast
13 rows of standing monuments stretching over a mile
Post and lintel architecture
Post up, lintel over
First type of construction
Encloses a little space
If it's extended out to the edge of the dolmen it allows access into the container, called a passage grave (pathway)
What is it called when we set up circles with stones?
Henge or Cromlech
What are the Celts?
Celtic terms are used for Neolithic megaliths
Danube River and S. Germany until 2nd millenium BC
Spoke Indo-European languages
Migrate through Western Europe
Ruled by a chief
Worshipped gods and believed in the immortality of the soul
Celtic priests/druids supervised education, religion, and justice
What are menhirs?
Slightly shaped single stones (monoliths) that stand in the ground
Erected individually, in clusters, or rows
Symbolizing phallic power of the male fertilizing Mother Earth
What are dolmens?
Chambers consisting of 2 or more vertical stones supporting a large single one
What are cromlechs?
Groups of Menhirs arranged to form circles or semicircles
Greatest number found in Britain
Required a lot of effort to build
Marked sacred spaces
What is the Ave Bury Henge
Most famous henge in Europe
Has a dirt bank
Where did people first invent writing?
Ancient Near East
What did writing enable?
Communities to keep records & create permanent literature
What did the ancient Near East produce concerning writing?
1st known epic poetry
Providing insight into the origins of human thought & civilization & on artistic products of the civilization not before possible
How much earlier did Neolithic cultures develop in the Near East than in Europe?
4000 years earlier
What made it hard for the Near Eastern neoliths to settle down as the Europeans?
Droughts and floods
How did the Near Eastern people learn to manage water supplies?
They built large-scale irrigation systems
How were large-scale irrigation systems in the Near East made possible?
Stabilized political power
What did the Near Eastern Agricultural rituals celebrate?
Fertility and the vegetation cycles of birth to death to rebirth
What was the most constant artistic & religious symbol in the Near East?
A female deity and her male counterpart
What does Near Eastern architecture reflect?
Elaborate sacred spaces where religious buildings symbolize the cosmic world of the gods '
When & where was the Near Eastern Neolithic Area?
9000--4500 /4000 BC
Jericho in the West Bank
Catal Huyuk in modern Turkey
Where is Mesopotamia located in the modern world?
When was the Uruk period in Near Eastern Mesopotamia?
When was Sumer in the Near East?
Early Dynastic Period
When was Akkad in the Near East ?
When and where was the Neo-Sumerian Period?
What were the 2 Babylonian periods?
The Old Babylonian period
When was the Old Babylonian period in the Near East?
C. 1800--1600 BC
When was the Neo-Babylonian period in the Near East?
C. 612--539 B.C.
When and where was the Assyrian Empire in the Near East?
1300 B.C.--612 B.C.
What are the different parts of Mesopotamia?
What were the different periods of Mesopotamia?
Early Dynastic period
Old Babylonian period
Where, when, and what was the Empire called in Anatolia?
c. 1450--1200 B.C.
Where is Anatolia in the modern world?
When was Ancient Iran?
When and where was Achamenid Persia?
When were the Scthians in the Near East?
8th & 4th centuries BC
Where in the modern world were the Scythians?
Russia & Ukraine
What are the principal sites in the Near East?
Neolithic Area at Jericho & Catal Huyuk
Where is Jericho located?
Jericho is one of the world's oldest....
When was Jericho built?
c. 8000--7000 BC
When it was built, what was Jericho surrounded by?
A ditch, high walls, & a tower that rose over 30 ft. high
Describe the houses and their construction in Jericho.
Made of mud brick
Erected on stone foundations
Where was mud brick most often used?
In Near Eastern Architecture
What are the characteristics of mud brick?
Manufactured from an expensive, findable material
Easy to work with
Walls were plastered and painted
What is shown by corpses being buried under the floors in Jericho?
Concern with protective ancestors
What are the Jericho Skulls?
Reflect attempt to reconstitute the image of the dead person by modeling the features in plaster
Renderings of the transition between life and death
Dead person's detached skull served as a model to rebuild the face and preserve their memory
Where is the Fertile crescent?
Around the Tigris & Euphrates
Why is it called the Fertile Crescent?
It is the first domestication of plants and the first civilization
When was Jericho started?
What does Jericho mean?
How high is Jericho located?
About water level
Up to how high was the wall of Jericho?
When did metal show up in Jericho?
What were the buildings in Jericho made of?
Clay, wood, & mud brick
What is unusual about the houses in Jericho?
Built with high ladders to enter from the roof and other doors
There are rooms in them dedicated to drinking
What is found inside of the walls and floor in the houses in Jericho?
Reserve heads/Jericho heads
What are the Jericho heads evidence of?
That we actually associate our entire lives with this location
What did inhabitants of Jericho spread out for?
What happens after cities combine and become larger?
After growing enough, they become states and eventually build into an empire
Where is Catal Huyuk?
In Anatolia/modern Turkey
When was Catal Huyuk?
C. 6500--5500 BC
What is Catal Huyuk?
The largest Neolithic settlement site so far disc.
What is there evidence of at Catal Huyuk?
That this is one of the most developed Neolithic cultures
Agriculture and trade were well est.
Stoneware and ceramics were made
Was planned without streets
How were the houses in Catal Huyuk connected?
By their rooftops
What are the characteristics of the Catal Huyuk houses?
Mud brick houses
Connected by rooftops
Access by ladders
Ventilation shafts to allow smoke to escape
Interiors had built-in benches made of clay
Skeletons buried under floors and benches
Why were the houses in Catal Huyuk unable to be entered from the ground without a ladder?
Could've been for defense
What were the skeletons like found in Catal Huyuk?
Some coated w/red ocher
Necks and heads decorated with blue and green pigments
Deposits of jewelry and weapons accompanied the remains
Was Catal Huyuk literate?
What may have chambers found in Catal Huyuk functioned as?
What were the deities like in Catal Huyuk?
Appear in human form, standing or seated with sacred animals
Male or female
What was Mesopotamia?
The center of Ancient Near Eastern civilization
What was the word Mesopotamia derived from?
Greek words meaning middle river
Land between the rivers
What two rivers was Mesopotamia between?
The Tigris and Euphrates
What was the climate like in Mesopotamia?
What was used to make the land in Mesopotamia fertile?
What were the cities in Mesopotamia vulnerable to?
They were accessible to trade
When did the Neolithic period in Mesopotamia end?
What followed the Neolithic period in Mesopotamia?
Urbanization and the construction of the first known monumental temples, dedicated to each city's paton deity
What were the temples in Mesopotamia oriented toward and why?
The 4 cardinal points of the compass
Reflects religious beliefs that related architecture to the earth and sky
What were the Mesopotamian gods?
Nergal and Ereshkigal
Who was Enlil?
God of the air
A productive creator who ensures good harvests
Who was Anu?
Supreme god of the heavens
Who was Enki/Ea?
God of water, arts and crafts, & wisdom
Who was Ninhursag?
The Great Mother and Lady of the Mountain, goddess of the earth, and Anu's consort
Who was Utu/Shamash?
Sun god, judge, and protector
Who was Nanna/ Sin?
God of the moon
Who was Inanna/Ishtar?
Goddess of fertility, love, and war
Who were Nergal and Ereshkigal?
Queen and king of the underworld
Describe cone mosaic use in architecture.
Thousands of long, thin cones made of baked clay
Embedded in mud walls and columns
Leaving only the circle ends of the cones visible
Dipped in black, red, or tan pigments
Arranged in geometric patterns
Reinforced the walls
Structural & aesthetic purpose
What were the technological advances in Mesopotamia?
Potter's wheel and metalworking
Changes in war and art
Metal weapons superior to stone
Describe the aspects of Mesopotamian religion?
God rep. anthropomorphically
Gods were superhuman in power
Thought the universe was created by a primal sea
Their definition of universe was a flat earth, the vault of heaven, & the atmosphere in between
Suns, moons, planets, stars, & gods existed in the atmosphere
Humans were created out of clay for the purpose of serving the gods
When people died their spirits were ferried across a river into a gloomy existence below earth
Ceremonies were performed in temples before a god's image, which they thought was literally inhabited by the god
They were fed, clothed, and housed along w/their entire families in the temple
How do we get our knowledge of Mesopotamian gods?
From cuneiform texts of prayers, rituals, legends, and myths
When was the Uruk Period?
c. 3500--3100 BC
When was the earliest writing developed?
The Uruk Period
What does the Uruk period coincide with?
The rise of city-states and literacy
What are city states?
Powerful, independent cities that ruled allied territories
What is Uruk's old name?
Where is Uruk?
The middle of a marsh land
What happened April 9--11, 2003?
U.S. invaded Baghdad and major looting took place
We warned them before we came and they didn't protect the art or artifacts, which connected Christianity and Jews
We lost much art of this era
What is Warka?
The first city of Mesopotamia or the Garden of Eden
What was the only building they protected when we looted Bagdad?
The oil ministry because 96% of Iraq's economy was the buying and selling of that oil
Basis of the Iraqi economy
What were iconoclasts
The breakers of images
Christians, Jews, and Muslims thought that they shouldn't make sculptures so they destroyed them
What was one of the greatest contributions to ancient Mesopotamian architecture?
Mound or pyramid structure
What does inlaid mean?
Set on the surface
When is evidence of Inanna found as early as?
4th millenium BC
Who is Inanna?
Goddess of fertility, love, and war
Wife of the shepherd god Dumuzi/Tammuz
The central deity in the most important rite of Sumer's New Year Festival
What is a ziggurat?
Uniquely Mesopotamian architectural form
Imitation mountains built as platforms for the gods
Created a transitional space between people and their gods
Example of load-bearing construction
Why did the Mesopotamians build ziggurats?
They thought each city was under the protection of gods whom the city's people owed service so they made them platforms
Mountains were believed to embody some of the powers of nature since they were the sources of water that flowed into the plains and made agriculture possible
Their goddess Ninhursag was also the lady of the Lady of the Mountain
What is load-bearing construction?
System of building that began in the Neolithic period
Massive walls that had small openings or none
Usually solid, stepped structures, tapering toward the top, with wide bases, supporting the entire weight of the ziggurat
What are cylinder seals classed as?
What is glyptic art?
From the greek word meaning carved
What is intaglio printing?
Seal's hard, inciised surface would've been pressed against a soft surface, leaving a raised impression of the animals in reverse
What were cylinder seals?
Small stone cylinders into which an image has been carved
Used originally for ownerships, inventories, and accounts, and to legalize private and state documents
What do cylinder seals offer?
A rich view of iconography and development of a pictorial style
What did seal impressions create?
Ownership contributing to the development of writing
Where did the earliest known written language come from?
Sumer in S. Mesopotamia
What is cuneiform?
The language of the religious and intellectual classes
From the latin word meaning wedge
What kind of numerical system did the Sumerians use?
With a base of 60 and the decimal system
What happened concerning languages in Mesopotamia after 2300 BC?
A Semitic language Akkadian became more prevalent than Sumerian
What was Akkadian?
Belonged to a people that may've come from the west
What were the 2 main geographical divisions of Mesopotamia and what languages corresponded to them?
Sumer in the South and Akkad in the North
Both between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
What happened in Mesopotamia shortly after the invention of writing?
Mesopotamian literature developed and words became creative expression as well with epic poetry dealing with the origins of gods, humans, the history of kings, founding of cities, and developing civilization
What happened according to Sumerian tradition shortly before the invention of writing?
Separating preliterate Mesopotamia from its literate historical era
What is the Epic of gilgamesh?
The oldest surviving epic poem
Preserved on cuneiform tablets from 2nd millennium BC
When was Sumer prevalent?
During the Early Dynastic period
When did transition to full literacy occur?
During growth of a dozen powerful city-states ruled by dynasties
What happened during the growth of those city-states?
People played specialized roles under administration of a class of priests
What is Ur?
What did sir Leonard Wooley discover?
Evidence of the richness of the Early Dynastic culture with the uncovery of a royal cemetery
Who were the Akkadians?
A semitic-speaking Mesopotamian people that lived N. of Sumer that had a territorial expansian in 24th century BC, made the capital at Akkad, and dominated 1 city-state after another until they ruled Mesopotamia
They assimilated much of Sumerian culture, but there were changes?
What changes did the Akkadians make in Mesopotamia?
City-states were subordinate to a larger political entity of an empire
Akkadian became the dominant language
Some Akkadian gods were merged with those of Sumer
Some Akkadian rulers elevated themselves to the status of divine
Who was Sargon I?
The founder of the Akkadian dynasty
Reigned from c. 2300 to 2250 BC
1st legendary birth story of one who is destined for greatness
His story is inscribed on a tablet and tells of his lowly illegitamate birth
His mother sends him down a river in a basket and a man named Akki, who wa getting water, finds him and raises him as his son
Later rules in the city of Agade/Akka
Gained control of most of Mesopotamia and lands beyond the Tigris and Euphrates
Who was Enheduanna?
Major political figure of this time
She had a great deal of political power
Supposed to be the embodiement on earth of ninguna, wife of Singun
Known for writing hymns in praise of Sargon and hymns in praise of other gods
Earliest literary works whose author is known
Significant bc she was a woman
Who is Naram-Sin?
Sargon I's grandson
Who was the Akkadian dynasty defeated by?
Who were the Guti?
Mountain people from Northeast who ruled Mesopotamia for about 60 years
City-state of Lagash was the only one that managed to hold out and prospered
When the Sumerians overthrew them, there was a revival of Sumerian culture in the United Southern city-states
Who was the ruler of Lagash after the period of Guti dominance?
What was significant about Gudea?
He initiated extensive constructions programs with several temples
Made possible since he made peace in his territory despite political upheavals surrounding the state
Embodied transition between gods and humans
Mesopotamian rulers were viewed as the gods' chosen intermediaries on earth
Basis for continuing belief in divine right of kings
When the last Neo-Sumerian king was overthrown by foreign invaders, what happened?
Mesopotamia reverted to rule by independent city-states
When was Mesopotamia next united?
Under the Amorites
Who are the Amorites
Semitic people from Arabia
Established their capital at Babylon and had the Old Babylonian period
Who was the Amorites most famous king?
Who was Hammurabi?
Best known for his law code
Txt based on local Sumerian legal traditions and remains an important historical document that shows relationship of law to society
Describe the Law code of Hammurabi?
Written in Akkadian in 51 cuneiform collumns
Provides view into social and legal structure of Mesopotamia
Purpose of laws was to protect the weak from the strong
Also showed traditional class distinctions since lower classes were more severely punished for crimes committed against the upper classes than vice versa
Showed no intention to create social equality or concern for orphans and widows
Aimed to maintain continuity and stability of society
Who sacked Babylon?
Hittites from Anatolia c. 1600 BC
Who had control after the Old Babylonian Period?
Who were the Kassites?
Group that came from Western Iran
Led a time of great political and cultural turmoil
Immigrants from further Western had influence
Kept Babylon a renowned cultural center
Who were the Hittites?
Indo-Europeans who settled in Anatolia 2000/1900 BC
Made the capital city of Hattusas in central Turkey
Kept records in cuneiform on clay tablets in a sort of library with the first known records in an Indo-European language
Cremated their dead and buried the ashes and bones in urns
Didn't have much large-sclae tomb art
Evidence of palaces, temples, cities, and walls decorated with reliefs
Fortification and location of palaces and citadels reflect the need for protection from invading armies
What are citadels?
Elevated, fortified cities
Where was Assyria located and what was its capital?
Along the Tigris
Assur, named for the chief Assyrian deity
When did Assyria become a permanent fortified city?
When did Assyria gain international status?
What did Assyria have?
More stone available than the rest of Mesopotamia
When did Assyria's military strength?
Under Assurnasirpal II
What palace is the most fully excavated large-scale example that reveals the complexity of royal architecture?
Palace that king Sargon II built at Dur Sharrrukin
What happened with the rise of Assyrian palace architecture?
Importance of the ziggurat declined
Relationship between religious and administrative centers changed
Power reflected by showing victories and cruelty and the ziggurat became an accessory
Empire faced constant pressure
Who did the capital Nineveh fall to in 612 BC?
An alliance of Medes and Scythians
Under who did Assyria become a formidable military force?
Who was the first Assyrian imperial king?
What did Tiglath-Pilesar record?
His intent to conquer the world and said Assurnasirpal II told him to do so
What did Assurnasirpal II's rule combine?
Cruelty with culture
Who was Nebuchadnezzar?
Reigned 604--562 B.C.
Greatest of the Neo-Babylonian kings
Restored some of Babylon's splendor
Commissioned architectural monuments
Describe round arches.
ay be thought of as a curved lintel connecting 2 vertical supports/posts
Round arch is semicircular and stronger than a horizontal lintel
Carries the thrust of the weight onto the two vertical supports rather than having all the stress rest on the horizontal
Greeks, Etruscans, and Romans used them
Describe the technique of glazing.
Technique for adding a durable, water-resistant finish to clay object
Glazes can be clear, white, or colored
Typically made from ground mineral pigments mixed with water
Minerals become glasslike and fuse with clay bodies of the objects when fired at high temperatures with kilkns
When was the Neo-Babylonian Empire defeated?
By Cyrus of Persia
Where is Iran?
East of Mesopotamia
What happened in Iran by the 5th millenium?
Pottery style had emerged
What did the Scythians art show influence of?
Early Iranian art
Who were the Scythians?
Migratory people originally from S. Russia
What was characteristic of Scythian art?
A lot of architectural skill
Who are the Persians?
Indo-European speaking people affiliated with the Medes
Settled Southeast of Susa in Fars
Who was King Cyrus II/Cyrus the Great?
Ruled from 559--530 BC
Founded Achaemenid Dynasty, the largest empire in the ancient world
Conquered Medes, Lydia, Babylon
His son got Egypt and eventually got as far as the Aegean islands
What was Achaemenid Persia influenced by?
Especially in celebrating kingship
Whose religious teachings did Achaemenid Persia follow?
What were the Persians' religious beliefs?
World's 2 central forces were light and dark
Ahuramazda was light
Ahriman was dark
Rituals were held outdoors, no temples
What was the Persians' most elaborate architecture?
What is Persopolis?
Begun c. 520 B.C. by Darius I and continued under Xerxes and Artaxerxes I
Built on stone platform 40 ft high
Double stairway leading to the main gate called all lands
When did Persian domination stop?
200 years after Darius I started the palace at Persopolis
What happened in 331 B.C.?
Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia, conquered the Achaemenids and created an even bigger empire
Who would be the last ruler of the Persian empire?
What was the greatest structure in Persia?
An audience hall for receiving diplomats
When did a new Persian empire emerge?
What is important about Egypt?
It's one of the most powerful and longest-lasting civilizations in the ancient world
How did the Egyptians live in the Neolithic period?
Farming communities farmed along the banks of the Nile and used stone tools, made ivory and bone objects, and had hand-built pottery
When did Egypt unify?
What are the 2 parts of Egypt?
Upper Egypt in the S.
Lower Egypt in the N.
What is Egypt defined by?
Talk about the Nile.
World's longest river
It flooded annually, keeping the lands fertile
Flows N. for 4,160 miles from C. Africa through Egypt
At Memphis, it divides and spreads into its delta
What is the Nile's delta?
A wide muddy triangle of about 14,500 sq. miles
Region of marsh and scrub
Empties into the Mediterranean Se
What 2 Rivers combined for the Nile?
Rain in E-C Africa drains into lakes
Lake Victoria, forming the White Nile
After this flows N. it reaches Khartourn and joins the Blue Nile in the Ethiopoian mountains
Then the Nile enters Nubia
What are cataracts?
Outcrops of rock
At 6 points the river passes over them
At the first, the Nile enters Lower Egypt at Aswan
What caused the Nile to flood each year?
Rain from C. Africa and melting snow from Ethiopian highlands
Describe the Nile's floods.
Average flood level is 25 ft. ihgh
Didn't flood villages
Resulted in dark, rich silt
Pattern was predictable
What did the Egyptians call their land and what does it mean?
Kemet "the black"
What did the Egyptians call the desert and what does it mean?
Deshret 'the red'
What happened if the Nile didn't flood?
The Egyptians had a food shortage
Who was Hapy?
The Egyptians personification of the Nile who they regularly honored w/festivals and hymns so the nile would flood
What resulted from the Egyptians dependency on the Nile?
A sense of order and inevitability
What theme is central to the development of Egyptian religion?
Every natural phenomenon seemed a continual rebirth
What is Ancient Egypt a part of?
Where does the Nile end?
The broad Delta
What puts black mud into the delta?
Minerals that come from the mountains, providing fertilizer
What does Kemet refer to?
Refers to the black of the mud of the delta aka the source of their life
What is the distinction between E. & W. Egypt?
East is the land of the living because that's where the sun rises
West is the land of the dead
What is Necropolis?
The land of the dead
Who was buried on the West Bank?
The dead, esp. kings and royalty
What did crossing the Nile from E. to W. represent?
Crossing from the land of the living to the land of the dead
What was everything to the Egyptians?
What does the Great Sphinx remind us of?
That the King wasn't just a political leader, but also a religious leader
After his dismemberment and death, the God Osiris became a symbol of what?
Regeneration and the West
In Ancient Egypt color symbolism, what does red represent?
In Ancient Egypt color symbolism, what does black represent?
Resurrection and rebirth
Birth to eternal life
What was the Book of the Dead a collection of?
What is the most dangerous hour?
6 to 7
How is Egypt separate?
Upper and lower Eygpt as a trade route and West and Eastern Egypt as a boundary
What does Egyptian chronology consist of?
Kingdoms and intermediate periods
What are intermediate periods?
When the kingdom isn't unified
What is a dynasty?
A political designation, meaning rulership by a family that rules where the leadership is passed along by bloodline
Describe Egyptian religion.
Gods were manifested in everything in nature
They influenced human lives and ordered the universe
They could appear as animals, humans, or composite forms
Had local gods and cults that were confined to a certain nome/district
Gods had spheres of influence that could overlap
Pantheon of enormous complexity
What happened to the livelihood of the local gods after Egypt unified?
Importance of them depended on the military and political life of their districts
What were the names of the Egyptian gods?
Who is Amon?
Great god of Thebes
Shown as sacred animals like a ram or goose
Who is Anubis?
Patron of embalmer
Who is Aten?
The god of the sun disk
Great creator god
Who is Bes?
Helper of women in childbirth
Protects against snakes and other dangers
Dwarf w/lion features
Who is Hapy?
God of the Nile in flood
Depeicted as a man with saggy boobs, a clump of papyrus or a lotus on his head, and bearing tables w/offerings
Who is Hather?
Goddess w/many functions and attributes
Shown as cow or a hybrid of one
Mother, wife, and daughter of Ra
Protector of the royal palace
Domestic fertility goddess
Who is Horus?
Falcon god identified with the king
Son of Orsiris and Isis and avenger of Osiris
Who is Isis?
Wife of Osiris
Mother of Horus
1 of 4 protector Goddesses
Who is Maat?
Goddess of truth, right, and orderly conduct
Shown as a women with an ostrich feather on her head
Who is Mut?
Wife of Amon
Vulture goddess later shown as a woman
Who is Osiris?
God of the underworld
Dead and mummified king
Who is Ptah?
Creator god of Memphis
Patron god of craftsmen
Who is Ra/Re?
Falcon-headed sun god of Heliopolis
Linked with other gods whose cults aspire to universality
Who is Sarapis?
Combines characteristics of Osiris and Zeus from the Ptolemaic period
Who is Seth?
God of storms and violence
Brother and murderer of Osiris
Rival of Horus
Shown as a pig, donkey, or hippo
Who is Thoth?
God of writing and wisdom
Head of an ibis
Prayed to when preparing to write a text
When did Egypt start being ruled by pharaohs/kings that had absolute control?
When does monumental art begin?
Starts when King Menes unites Egypt
Who made the most comprehensive list of kings?
A priest Manetho in the 3rd century
How many dynasties are in Egyptian history?
What are the Egyptian periods?
Early Dynastic period
First Intermediate period
Second Intermediate period
3rd Intermediate Period
Late Dynastic Period
When was the Predynastic period?
When was the Early Dynastic period?
Dynasties 1 & 2
When was the Old Kingdom and what dynasties were in it?
When was the First Intermediate period and what dynasties were in it?
When was the Middle Kingdom and what dynasties were in it?
When was the Second Intermediate period and what dynasties were in it?
1640 B.C.--1550 BC
When was the New Kingdom and what dynasties were in it?
When was the Third Intermediate Period and what dynasties were in it?
When was the Late Dynastic period and what dynasties were in it?
When were the Persian kings ruling?
When was the Ptolemaic period and what type of kings were there?
What did the Intermediate periods consist of?
Anarchy or central political decline or foreign domination
When did the Hyksos rule?
Between the Middle and New Kingdoms
Second Intermediate Period
Who were the Hyksos?
Controlled Lower Egypt for more than 100 years
Semitic rulers based in the Northeastern Delta
Word meaning princes of foreign countries
Introduced the horse-drawn chariot
What were 2 big changes during the New Kingdom?
Hatshepsut co-ruled Egypt w/Thutmose III
Akhenaten made revolutionary changes in the hierarchy of Gods
When did Egypt fall under Persian rule?
From 525--404 BC
When were the Persians defeated?
332 BC by Alexander the Great
What did Ptolemy's decendants do?
Established the capital of Egypt at Alexandria
Infused Egypt with Greek ideas
Describe the Egyptian concept of kingship.
It was a divine state
They mediated between their people and their gods
They were considered gods
Ruled according to the principle of maat
Queen could be either the king's mother or his principal wife
Marriages took place between a pharaoh and his sister, or daughter when politically helpful
Egyptian kingship wasn't for women
Royal family's behavior was modeled on the God's
What is maat?
Divinely established order
Rulership by divine right
God granted leadership
Were expected to protect their people from not only worldly controlled disasters but also natural ones
Who was Amon-Ra?
From the 3rd Dynasty
Compound god in the guise of a pharaoh that was thought to impregnate the queen with a son who would be heir to the throne
Divine conception was part of each pharaoh's personality & iconography
What were kids for?
To provide male heir
Daughters that could be used to create alliance through marriage
How did Egyptian kingship gain power?
By distinction from the public
When is the Neolithic period in Egypt?
What is style?
How something is done
When is there a major change in style?
3100 BC after the Predynastic Period
What were changes that occurred in the Predynastic Period?
Imagery relating to the afterlife was depicted
Also composite figures and views
Maat was used
What characterizes the Early Dynastic Period?
The rulership of the first 2 families to rule over unified Egypt
When do we see works pop up that have Egyptian iconography and style/form?
After 3100 BC
What is a serekh?
Rectange that contains one of the king's names in hieroglphs
Used during the 1st, 2nd, & 3rd dynasties
What were the 5 titled names of the king?
The chief name/Horus name of the reigning pharaoh
"He of the Two Ladies" signifying that the king was under the protection of 2 goddesses
Horus of Gold and reference to the sunny sky
4th dynasty "King of Upper and Lower Egypt" added
"Son of Ra"
What a prenomen?
Ex--King of Upper and Lower Egypt
What is a cartouche?
Rectangle with a semicircle at either end
Signified passage of the sun around the universe and the pharaoh's domination over it
What is a nomen?
Ex--Son of Ra
What are hieroglyphics?
A form of picture writing
From words meaning sacred and I carve
Earliest method of writing in Egypt
Reserved for royal writing
What was the hieratic writing system?
Abridged form of hieroglyphics
High society writing
What is demotic writing system?
Standard for all but religious texts by the 7th century
Simpler form of writing
Writing the people used
What is coptic writing?
Replaced hieroglyphics, hieratic, and demotic
Composed of Greek letters and supplemented by 7 demotic signs
What are the Egyptian systems of writing?
Hieroglyphics, Hieratic, Demotic, Coptic
What are hieroglyphs called by the Egyptians?
Describe the Egyptian view of the afterlife.
Death wasn't the end of life but the transition to a similar existence on another plane
The dead had to be preserved with earthly possessions and reminders of daily activities to ensure a good afterlife
First had simple burials in dry desert sands and later coffins insulated the body and artificial means of preservation were used
If the body of the dead didn't last, an image could substitute
What is the Ka?
Was thought to enter the surrogate before journeying to the next world
Viewed as the life force that continued after death and let the dead eat and drink offerings provided by relatives and priests
Resides in ur body
Because the Ka lives in eternity, the body needs a home for eternity
Since the desert doesn't have moisture and moisture and oxygen r needed for a body to decompose, the bodies would preserve the flesh as he house of the ka
Why did Egyptians start to bury people in wooden boxes?
Since in the desert animals like jackals and hyenas would tear apart bodies
What did beginning to preserve the bodies a lot earlier lead to?
What is a mastaba?
Low structures that cover the tombs
Have little rooms in them next to the chapel
Monumental tomb architecture seen in Ancient Egypt first with this
Smaller than pyramids
Originally made of mud brick, later faced with cut stones
Single-story trapezoidal structure
Had a vertical shaft leading to an underground burial chamber where the dead body was in a sarcophagus
What is a serdab?
Chamber for the Ka statue
There was a peephole from it to the chapel so the dead could see you
Room located at ground level
What is an akh?
More detached from the body than the Ka
Resides in the heavens as the spiritual transformation of the dead person
What is a Ba?
In touch with the dead
Its mobility in and out of the body was shown by its depiction in art as a bird with a human head
What does mummification highlight?
The Egyptian preoccupation with material existence in afterlife
What is mummification?
70 day process of embalming corpses
What are the steps to mummification?
1) Removal of internal organs, except for the heart, was thought to be the seat of understanding
2) Body packed in a dry natron, which dehydrated the body and dissolved its body fats
4) Treated with oils and ointments
5) Bandaged with linen in as many as 20 layers in a way that conformed to the body's original shape
What is natron?
Natural compound of sodiumcarbonate and sodium bicarbonate found in Egypt
What caused the body to turn black and what did they think this came from?
Substances applied to the skin
People thought this was because of pitch, meaning mumiya in Arabic, where we got the word mummy
What types of ornaments were placed on the body or inside the wrapping?
Amulets and scarabs
What are amulets?
Charms against evil or injury
What are scarabs?
Representations of dung beetles used as protective devices, symbolic of the sun
What are canopic jars?
Where embalmed organs were placed except for the brains since they were thought to be useless
Each jar held a certain organ and was protected by one of Horus's 4 sons, each having a characteristic head, causing the jars to have human-headed stoppers until 1300 B.C., then the head of the relevant protective deity afterwards
Before 2000 BC, what was molded to the contours of the face?
A mask made of linen stiffened with plaster/cartonnage
After 2000 BC, what was used instead?
A separate mask often made from valuable materials
What were coffins made of and put inside?
Made of wood or cartonnage
Put inside stone sarcophagi
What are funerary texts?
Written on tomb walls, coffins, and papyrus
Show the Egyptian use of words as magic to protect the dead
They contain spells used to present the dead's name and plead for well-being in the afterlife by telling his virtues, good character, and asking for his body not to be harmed
What are the earliest known maps from the Middle Kingdom?
Book of Two Ways
Book of the Dead
What is the Book of Two Ways?
Designed to help the dead find their way in the transition from life to afterlife, and the journey through the underworld
What is the Book of the Dead?
Compilations of religious and magical texts found in many burials
Ancient Egyptians called this the Chapter of Coming Forth by Day, referring to the ability of the dead to leave their tombs
What are characteristics of the Old Kingdom?
Long periods of stable, highly centralized government
Artists worked for the state and its rulers
Egyptian artists worked for individual Patrons and for the state
Ruling class controlled the wealth
What is the most monumental expression of the pharaoh's power?
What was the pyramid used for?
The king's burial place and zone of passage into the afterlife
Who was Imhotep?
King Zoser's architect
Made a colossal structure within a sacred architectural precinct at Saqqara
Creator of the step pyramid
Priest at Heliopolis
1st Egyptian to build monumental stone structures
His name is inside King Zoser's step pyramid
He's designated First after the King of Upper and Lower Egypt
Legendary figure in Ancient Egypt
Magician, astronomer, healer
Was worshipped as a God
What was a step pyramid?
Addition of 5 more mastaba forms of decreasing size, one on top of another
What do we begin to see in the Old Kingdom?
Cities of the dead expanding in scope and architecture
Streets and avenues in between serdabs, like a city of the dead
More and more sophistication
What was the next major development in pyramid design?
Purely geometric pyramid
4 triangular sides slanted inward from a square base so the apexes of each triangle met over the center of the square
Originally had smooth sides faced with polished limestone
4 corners were pointed to the cardinal points of the compass
What are the 3 most outstanding examples of pyramids out of the 80 known?
Khufu's, the largest, known as the Great Pyramid
Khafre's, 22 ft. shorter than Khufu's & 15% smaller
Menkaure's, 10% size of Khufu's
Why did Egyptian artists use a grid system?
To control proportions of human figures
Allowed them to make identical multiples of statues
Changed only a little over time
Could be adjusted to any scale
Could be used for any type of art
Had a characteristic way of depicting the human body where the shoulders and one eye are frontal, head, arms, and legs are in profile, and the waist was nearly in profile but was turned a little to show the belly button, arriving at a convential, instantly recognizable composite image
What was almost all Egyptian sculpture preserved originally created for?
Tombs or temples
What type of medium was preferred for royal sculpture?
Hard stone like obsidian, granite, diorite, and slate
Describe the use of papyrus manuscripts.
The most important writing surface made from the papyrus plant
Grew in the marshes along the Nile
Stems were cut into 12 inches
Rind was peeled off
Pith was cut lengthwise into thin slaces
1 layer of slices laid side by side with second layer on top of it at right angles
2 layers were bonded by pressing, since the natural starch of the papyrus was adhesive
Surface was polished with a wood or stone tool
Sheets could be joined together at the edges and then rolled up into scrolls
Pigments were used to write on them
Solid tablets made of carbon or of ground ocher that were mixed with gum
Dissolved as the scribe wet his brushes and rubbed them over the tablets surface
Brushes were made from the trimmed stem of other marsh plants
Bristles were made by chewing one end of their stems to separate the fibers
What new form of tomb was introduced in the Middle Kingdom?
What is rock-cut architecture?
The sides of cliffs were excavated to create artificial cave chambers
Popular with aristocrats and high-level bureaucrats in the 11th and 12th dynasties
Because over on the west bank opposite Waset there were a lot of valleys and canons
Columned porticos on the front
Tombs were made to look like their houses with the columns
What changes in sculpture occurred in the Middle Kingdom?
Was more naturalistic and royal figures were less imposing
Forms more rounded and faces showed hints of expression
What disrupted confidence in the pharaoh's absolute divine power in the Middle Kingdom?
Political turbulence and invasions of the First Intermediate period
In the First Intermediate Period, what exactly did the kings control?
The Nile/Delta area
When do we see the king reunifying Egypt under rule after the First Intermediate Period?
What was the political change in the Middle Kingdom?
Capital moved to the south to Waset (aka Thebes) to better administer the lands of Upper Egypt
What was the big architectural change during the Middle Kingdom?
A massive change in the funerary monuments occurs
Stopped making pyramids and mastabas and started making rock-cut tombs
Who invaded during the Second Intermediate Period?
Who are the hyksos?
Invaded the Nile Delta in 1640 BC and destroyed the Egyptian army then ruled the Delta and part of the Egyptian Nile for 100 years
What did the Hyksos introduce?
1) Compound bow--Egyptians had bronze weapons while the Hyksos had iron, since they'd already reached the iron age
2) Horse-drawn chariots
3) Helmets--made out of iron
4) Water hoist
5) Upright loom used for weaving large textiles
6) Lyre--harp,eventually N. Africans would take this and turn it on its side to make the al ud
What was the use for temples during the New Kingdom?
Provided another way of establishing the worshiper's relationship with the gods
Where were the first known Egyptian temples?
In the Neolithic period in the form of huts preceded by a forecourt
What is hypostyle?
The columned hallway from the Greek words meaning under & pillar
What is the Pylon Temple?
The standard Egyptian temple called a pylon after the 2 massive sloping walls/pylons flanking the entrance
Designed symmetrically along a single axis
As people entered, they were met by rows of identical statues facing each other
Some entrances flanked by obelisks and huge royal statues
Beyond the courtyard was the hypostyle hall
Massive columns cast shadows and created an awe-inspiring atmosphere
Clerestory windows let in small amounts of light that enhanced the effect of the shadows
Most people never entered
Occasionally elite were allowed to go into the courtyards while the priests carried the images of the gods in and out of the sanctuaries in barks, evoking the feeling of a mysterious enclosure, space inhabited by pharaohs and gods
What are obelisks?
Tall, tapering, 4-sided pillars ending in a pyramidion
What is a pyramidion?
A pointed tip
What does clerestory mean?
What are barks?
What are pylons?
2 massive sloping walls
How were Ancient Egyptian tempples considered microcosms of the universe?
Had both earthly and celestial symbolism
Column designs came from the vegetation of Egypt and represented the earth
How was it clear that colossal size was highly regarded in Egypt?
Scale of structures emphasized the power of the gods and pharaoh and made ordinary ppl feel insignificant
Vast numbers of columns were supposed to create an overwhelming effect
Large statues of the pharaoh were lining temple courtyard
Rows of sphinxes preceding entrances
How was repetition used in Ancient Egypt?
Designed to impress worshipers with the king's power and fertility
Who was one of the greatest emperors of the New Kingdom?
When do we start to see the word pharaoh being used?
Where did pharaoh come from?
Tuthmose III called himself per-o or the house
the Egyptians changed it into pharaohs
What did we see an explosion of in the New Kingdom?
Continuing tradition of rock-cut tombs
Tomb and temple combos
What were the main cities where temples were built?
Who was Queen Hatshepsut?
18th dynasty female pharaoh
Reigned c. 1473--1458 BC
Wife and half-sister of Thutmose II and when he died, his son by a minor queen, Thutmose III was underage, so Hatshepsut became regent for him 1479 BC
She exerted her right to succeed her father and was crowned king of Egypt in 1473
Her strong character and political acumen contributed to success
Used institution of co-regency to maintain her power without having to eliminate her rival
Selected her officials wisely
Assumed royal titles and iconography
Had her own divine conception depicted in her temple reliefs
Referred to herself in texts as the female Horus since there is a parallel between pharaohs and Horus
Chose to be represented as a man often
Led extremely succcessful military and architectural advances
Ruled like a king
What happened to the imagery of Hatshepsut?
Tuthmose III had her memory damned and it all destroyed to assert his own role as the successor of his father Thutmose II
Who was Senenmut?
Hatshepsut's daughter's guardian
Was the mind behind her funerary temple
Had high status since his tomb was decorated like a pharaohs
When did Thutmose III finally assume sole power?
What was characteristic of Thutmose III's reign?
He became a great conqueror, gaining control of Nubia and invading the Near East
What was Hatshepsut's reign known for?
What was the first civilization to avail itself of synthetic pigments?
What colors did the Egyptians add to the earth tones used by prehistoric cave painters?
Egyptian blues ground from lapis lazuli
Greens from malachite
Golden yellows from arsenic trisulfide/orpiment
What were new supports that the Egyptians used?
Wooden and stone statues, panels, and papyrus
A wider range of color was used for depicting ______ than for ______ painting.
Landscape and nature
How was religious painting restricted?
You could only used 6 colors that couldn't be mixed
Where is one of the best preserved groups of New Kingdom paintings found?
The Tomb of Nerfertari
Who was the main ruler of the Amarna Period?
King Amenhotep IV
What did King Amenhotep do?
Challenged religious cults and threatened the existence of established priesthood
Adopted a monotheistic religious system centered around the Aten
Changed his name to Akkhenaten
Moved the capital to Akhetaten
Who was the Aten?
The god of Amenhotep IV or Akhenaten's monotheistic religious
Represented the sun disk
Why may have Akhetaten/Amenhotep IV moved the capital to Akhetaten?
Maybe to escape the influence of the priests
Why did Akhetaten/Amenhotep IV call the new capital Akhetaten?
Name relates to Aten
Chose the name because the sun rising over the horizon at that point resembled the hieroglyph for sunrise
What 3 changes did Amenhotep IV make?
1) Religious change to monotheism worshipping Aten, could've destroyed priesthood
2) Political change of moving the capital from Waset to Armana
3) Artistic change insisting upon a change in proportion, imagery, and to a much more naturalistic aesthetic
How was the art during the Amarna period more naturalistic?
Amenhotep IV didn't always show himself as a pharaoh, but sometimes as a priest of Aten
What are the debated reasons the Amenhotep IV was depicted in this way?
He could've suffered from acromegaly, a condition that results in large hands, feet, and face
His proportions could reflect changes consistent with the other changes he made
May be an exaggeration of his actual appearance
What happened after Akhenaten/Amenhotep IV's reign?
Egypt reverted to its previous beliefs
Rulers after him tried to eradicate all traces of his religion and art
Who was Tutankhamon?
Reigned after Amenhotep IV from 1336--1327 B.C.
Returned to the worship of Amon
Died at 18
Only historical significance is his tomb
Who discovered Tutankhamon's tomb, how and when?
In an excavation of the Valley of the Kings
Why is Tutankhamon's Tomb significant?
Had some 5,000 other works of art and objects and his mummified body within
Had 4 burial chambers
What is Punt?
Located Southeast along the Red Sea
Source of exotic spices and incense
Destination of Egyptian expedition on reliefs of a temple
Rich in palm trees and giraffes and ruled by a heavy woman
Describe early Kush.
In Nubia which was called the Land of the Bow, the Land of the South, and Kush
Nile floods crucial to development
Had many natural resources
During neolithic, agriculture had developed, cattle was domesticated, started making pottery
What is the finest pottery that the Nubians made?
During the last 100 years of the New Kingdom, what happened to Egypt and Nubia?
Egyptian colonial administration collapsed along with the building programs
Nubia entered 300 years of obscurity
What is the Napatan Period?
When the Nubians invaded Egypt and established Kushite control
4 Kushite kings of Egypt in the 25th dynasty
What is Meroe?
Economic and Artistic high point in the 3rd century BC
New stage of Nubian cultural development
Had important trade routes and imported goods
Provided Roman emperors with elephants
Since early 7th century, Egypt has been part of the ...