Cells and Tissues

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Cells

microscopic cubelike structures; the smallest structure of all living things.

electrolytes

carry an electrical charge.

generalized cell

demonstrates many normal cellular features

nucleus

the control center for the cell

deoxyribonucleic acid

blue print for all of the body

proteins

DNA is instructions for building proteins

nuclear envelope

double membrane barrier

nuclear membrane

same as nuclear envelope; double membrane barrier

nucleoplasm

jellylike fluid enclosed by the nuclear membrane

nucleoli

small, darkstaining, essentially round bodies contained by the nucleus

chromatin

a loose network of bumpy threads

chromosomes

rod like bodies formed from chromatin

plasma membrane

a fragile, transparent barrier that contains everything in the cell

microvilli

tiny fingerlike projections that greatly increase the cells surface area

membrane junctions

vary structurally depending on their roles; membrane junctions

tight junctions

plasma membranes fuse together tightly like a zipper

desmosomes

anchoring junctions that prevent cells subjected to mechanical stress from being pulled apart

gap junctions

mainly to allow communication

connexons

hollow cylinders composed of proteins that span the entire width of the abutting membranes

cytoplasm

the cellular material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane

cytosol

semitransparent fluid that suspends the other elements

organelles

microscopic organs for the cell

inclusions

not functioning units, but instead are chemical substances that may or may not be present, depending on the specific cell type

lysosomes

contain powerful digestive enzymes

peroxisomes

contain powerful oxidase enzymes

mitochondria

the powerhouse of the cell

ribosomes

made of proteins, and where protein synthesis occurs

endoplasmic reticulum

it is a minicirculatory system for the cell

rough endoplasmic reticulum

contains ribosomes, but the smooth one doesn't

golgi apparatus

a stack of flattened membranous sacs associated with swarms of tiny vesicles

free radicals

highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can scramble the structure of proteins and nucleic acids

cytoskeleton

acts as the cells bones and muscles

intermediate filaments

help form desmosomes

microfilaments

involved in cell motility and changes in the shape of the cell

centrioles

rod shaped bodies that lie at right angles to each other

cilia

projections

flagella

a tail like thing

solution

homogeneous mixture of 2 or more components

solvent

something present in a larger amount in a mixture

solutes

the thing that dissolves in solution

intracellular fluid

a solution containing small amounts of gases

interstitial fluid

the fluid that continuously bathes the exterior of our cells

selective permeability

has to deal with what goes in and comes out of the cell

passive transport process

things are transported without any energy used from the cell

active transport process

things are transported using cellular energy

diffusion

the process by which molecules tend to scatter themselves throughout the available space.

concentration gradient

where the particles are more abundant

simple diffusion

unassisted diffusion of solutes through the plasma membrane

osmosis

diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

facilitated diffusion

provides a means for certain needed substances

filtration

the process by which water and other substances are forced through a membrane by fluid or hydrostatic pressure

pressure gradient

the gradient that actually pushes solute containing fluid from a place of high pressure to a place of low pressure

solute pumping

similar to facilitated diffusion in which both require protein carriers

solute pumps

protein carriers

exocytosis

moves substances out of cells

endocytosis

moves substances into cells

bulk transport

means of moving things into and out of cells

bulk phase endocytosis

the way cells drink

pinocytosis

what the way the cells drink used to be called

cell life cycle

the cycle of changes in a cell

interphase

the cell grows and carries on metabolistic activities

cell division

the point in a cell's life in which it divides

template

a set of instructions for a new nucleotide strand

mitosis

cell division

cytokinesis

the division of cytoplasm in mitosis

prophase

the process of chromatin coiling up in mitosis

chromosomes

the things that make us who we are

chromatid

the 2 strands that make up chromosomes

centromere

small button like body

mitotic spindle

centrioles separate from each other and begin to move toward opposite sides of the cell, directing the assembly

cleavage furrow

appears over the midline of the spindle, and it eventually squeezes or pinches the original cytoplasmic mass into 2 parts

gene

a DNA segment that carries the info for building one protein or polypeptide

transfer RNA molecules

small cloverleaf-shaped molecules

ribosomal RNA

helps form ribosomes, where proteins are built

messenger RNA molecules

long, single nucleotide strands that resemble half of a DNA molecule and carry the message containing instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA gene in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm

transcription

involves the transfer of information from DNA base sequence into the complementary base sequence of mRNA

triplet

each three base sequence specifying a particular amino acid on the DNA gene

codons

the corresponding three base sequences on mRNA

translation phase

the language of nucleic acids is translated into the language of proteins

anticodon

special three base sequence

epithelium

the lining or covering and glandular tissue of the body

apical surface

exposed to the bodys exterior or to the cavityof an internal organ

basement membrane

a structureless material secreted by the cells

simple epithelium

one layer of cells

stratified epithelium

more that one cell layer

serous membranes

slick membranes that line the ventral body cavity and cover the organs in that cavity

goblet cells

produce a lubricating mucus, are often seen in this type of epithelium

mucous membranes

epithelial membranes that line the body cavities open to the body exterior

pseudostratified columnar eptithelium

rest on a basement membrane

stratified squamous epithelium

the most common stratified epithelium in the body

stradtified cubodical epithelium

usually has just 2 cell layers with the surface cells being in the cubodial shape.

transitional epithelium

highly modified, stratified squamous epithelium that forms the lining of only a few organs

exocrine glands

retain their ducts, and their secretions empty through the ducts to the epithelial surface

connedtive tissues

connects body parts

extracellular matrix

a nonliving substance found outside of cells

hyaline cartilage

has abundant collagen fibers hidden by a rubbery matrix with a glossy, blue white appearance

fibrocartilage

forms the cushionlike disks between the vertebrae of the spinal column

elastic cartilage

found where a structure with elasticity is desired

dense connective tissue

has collagen fibers as its main matrix element

tendons

attach muscles to bones

ligaments

connect bones to bones

areolar tissue

the most widely distributed connective tissue varieties in the body

edema

a puffy condition

adipose tissue

fat tissue below the dermis

reticular connective tissue

a delacate nework of interwoven reticular fibers associated with reticular cells

stroma

bed or mattress

blood

vascular tissue

muscle tissue

tissue that contracts in order to make movement

striations

stripes

intercalated disks

the junctions where branching cells fit tightly together

supporting cells

insulate, and support, and protect the delicate neurons

regeneration

the replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells

fibrosis

involves repair by dense connective tissue, that is, by the formation of scar tissue

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