Lateral transfer via phage.
lateral transfer via conjugation tube
lateral transfer of DNA scraps in environment
A cell that has substantial peptidoglycan on outside of its membrane
Anerobic, Chemoheterotrophic. Corkskrewed in shape. Causes syphilis. Sister clade: all other bacteria. (First divergence)
Parasitic. Has "elementary bodies" and reticulate bodies. Sister clade: all bacteria other than spirochetes. (Second divergence).
Photoautotrophs, use chlorophyll-a. Basis of "oxygen revolution". Filimentous colonies have 1. vegetative cells (photosynthesizing) 2.spores (resting stages) 3. Heterocysts (nitogen-fixing). TWO photosystems, photosystem II is shed in heterocysts, O2 obstructs nitrogen fixation.
Histones bind DNA
A synapomorphy for archaea.