Chapter 6 - DNA Structure and Function

20 terms by SGeorgeAZ

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BIO156-PVCC

centromere

Constricted region in a eukaryotic chromosone where sister chromatids are attached.

chromosome

A structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins; carries part or all of a cell's genetic information.

histone

Type of protein that structurally organizes eukaryotic chromosomes.

nucleosome

A length of DNA wound around a spool of histone proteins.

sister chromatid

One of two attached members of a duplicated eukaryotic chromosome.

autosome

Any chromosome other than a sex chromosome.

chromosome number

The sum of all chromosomes in a cell of a given type.

diploid

Having two of each type of chromosome characteristic of the species (2n).

karyotype

Image of an individual's complement of chromosomes arrange by size, length, shape, and centromere location.

nucleotide

Monomer of nucleic acids; has five-carbon sugar, nitrogen-containing base, and phosphate groups.

sex chromosome

Member of a pair of chromosomes that differs between males and females.

DNA ligase

Enzyme that seals breaks or gaps in double-stranded DNA.

DNA polymerase

DNA replication enzyme. Assembles a new strand of DNA based on the sequence of a DNA template.

DNA repair mechanism

Any of several processes by which enzymes repair damaged DNA.

DNA replication

Process by which a cell duplicates its DNA before it divides.

DNA sequence

The order of nucleotide bases in a strand of DNA

mutation

Permanent change in DNA sequence.

reproductive cloning

Technology that produces genetically identical individuals.

somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

Method of reproductive cloning in which genetic material is transferred from an adult somatic cell into an unfertilized, enucleated egg.

therapeutic cloning

Using SCNT to product human embryos for research.

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