Korean War Peace Negociations: Who
Eisenhower, U.S. troops, POW's
Korean War Peace Negociations: What
Eisenhower honored a campaign pledge to travel to Korea as a means of ending the U.S. military involvement there. No formal peace treaty was ever signed. There was a POW issue on how to get the POWs back to North Korea and China, since many wanted to stay in South Korea.
Korean War Peace Negociations: When
Korean War Peace Negociations: Where
Korean War Peace Negociations: Impact
U.S. no longer involved in Korean War
Hidden Hand President: Who
Hidden Hand President: What
Although he extended many of Truman's programs such as domestic survellance, wire tapping, and covert action overseas, and actually used MORE nation security, he projected a air of calm steadiness and made people believe his sec. of treasury George Humphrey and cheif of staff Sherman Adams handled domestic issues.
Hidden Hand President: When
During Eisenhower administration (1953-1960)
Hidden Hand President: Where
Hidden Hand President: Impact
Did more when it appeared he was doing less.
"New Look" military: Who
Admiral Arthur Radford, head of the Joint Cheifs
"New Look" military: What
It reflected Ike's belief that too much military expanding would lead to hurt economic growth, so this new strategy would look less to costly ground forces and help with air power, nuclear capabilities, and covert action.
"New Look" military: When
"New Look" military: Impact
Less money, better techniques
Massive Retaliation Doctrine: Who
Massive Retaliation Doctrine: What
Said the threat of unleashing U.S. nuclear weaponry would stop Soviet expansion. (Eisenhower expanted NATZO, there were more radio programs for other countries, "summit meetings" between Ike and Khrushchev began, "Open Skies," people who had liked near nuclear rural test sites were becoming sick.)
Massive Retaliation Doctrine: Where
Massive Retaliation Doctrine: When
During Ike administration
Massive Retaliation Doctrine: Impact
More national security...?
Hungarian Revolution: Who
Hungarian rebels, Soviets
Hungarian Revolution: What
Hungarians forced Soviets to support anti-stalinist communist Imre Naggy and armed rebellion spread to change Soviets? It didn't work and the Soviet armies crushed the Hungarian uprising. U.S. did nothing to help because Hungary was considered to close to the Soviet Union.
Hungarian Revolution: Where
Hungarian Revolution: When
Hungarian Revolution: Impact
U.S. decided anti-communist policies were good at home but not abroad
Covert action: Who
Covert action: What
Battle against communism switched to Third World and covert action was less expensive and less visible than military deployment, so there was less controversy
Covert action: Where
Covert action: When
Covert action: Impact
Less expensive, less visible, more useful.
CIA action in Iran: Who
CIA action in Iran: What
Overthrew Mohammed Mossadegh's left-leaning government and replaced him with Shah Reca who was a firm ally of U.S. and oil interests until ousted by Muslim fundamentalists in 1979
CIA action in Iran: Where
CIA action in Iran: When
CIA action in Iran: Impact
U.S. is changing Third World governments to anticommunist.
CIA action in Guatemala: Who
CIA action in Guatemala: What
CIA, working closely with United Fruit Company, secretly helped topple President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmans elected government in Guatemala because Ike's officials saw him as communist because he sought to nationalize and redistribute large tracts of land, including some owned by the United Fruit.
CIA action in Guatemala: Where
CIA action in Guatemala: When
CIA action in Guatemala: Impact
Since CIA was so successful, National Security Council widened it to 15,000 agents by 1960
U.S. supports dictators: Who
dictators in Peru and Venezula, Paraguay's General Alfred Stroessner, Cuba's Fulgencio Batista
U.S. supports dictators: What
Eisenhower awarded Legion of Merit to unpopular Peru and Venezula dictators, confessed admiration for Stressner even though he sheltered ex-Nazis, and Nixon said Baltista was "Cuba's Abraham Lincoln" even though he was corrupt and did illegal gambling in U.S.
U.S. supports dictators: Where
Peru, Venezula, Paraguay, Cuba
U.S. supports dictators: When
During Eisenhower Administration
U.S. supports dictators: Impact
Latin American countries began to develop anti-American attitudes.
Latin Americans, partly Fidel Castro
Spread through Latin America when America did things such as have CIA secretly train Batista's security forces. When Castro overthrew Batista, he tried to have dependence on the U.S., but when they refused he turned to Soiviet Union for help and wanted to change all of Latin America to communists.
Latin America, especially Cuba
Castrow overthrew Batista in 1959
Ike adminstration tried encouraging democratic political practices, protection of human rights, and economic growth in Latin America
Evolution of Eisenhower Doctrine: Who
Evolution of Eisenhower Doctrine: What
President's pledge to defend Middle Eastern countries "against over armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism"
Evolution of Eisenhower Doctrine: Where
Evolution of Eisenhower Doctrine: When
Evolution of Eisenhower Doctrine: Impact
Actions furthered U.S. policy of supporting friendly, conservative governments in Middle East but also intensfied Arab nationalism and fostered anti-Americanism
U.S. support of French rule in Vietnam: Who
U.S. support of French rule in Vietnam: What
U.S. wanted communist forces led by Ho Chi Minh gone and supported the return of the French rule
U.S. support of French rule in Vietnam: Where
U.S., France, Vietnam
U.S. support of French rule in Vietnam: When
U.S. support of French rule in Vietnam: Impact
U.S. supported France
Ho Chi Minh: Who
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh: What
Sought independence from France, was communist-nationalist, had vainly appealed to the U.S. to support independence for Indochina. Then him and his Vietminh forces went to war against France and won
Ho Chi Minh: When
Ho Chi Minh: Where
Ho Chi Minh: Impact
Vietminh victory convinced Paris to abandon Indochina
French Defeat in Vietnam: Who
Ho Chi Minh vs. Bau Dai
French Defeat in Vietnam: What
Even though U.S. financed France military equipment, there was a stunning Vietminh victory that convinced Paris to abandon Indochina.
French Defeat in Vietnam: Where
French Defeat in Vietnam: When
French Defeat in Vietnam: Impact
Geneva Peace Accords of 1954
Geneva Peace Accords of 1954: Who
U.S., France, Indochina
Geneva Peace Accords of 1954: What
U.S. refused to sign. It removed French forces from Indochina and divided Indochina in to 3 new countries: Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, which was split to North Vietnam and South Vietnam
Geneva Peace Accords of 1954: Where
Geneva Peace Accords of 1954: When
Geneva Peace Accords of 1954: Impact
Fear of communist-nationalist victory that might set off a geopolitical chain reaction
Domino theory: Who
Domino theory: What
Said that the loss of any of the countries of Southeast Asia to Communist aggression would ultimately endanger the stabilit and security of Europe and Japan, a formulation known as the "domino theory." As communist government took control of North Korea, South Korea got Diem who was anti-communist and pro-America. However, he began to fall no matter how much money Ike sent to support him.
Domino theory: Where
U.S., North Vietnam, South Vietnam
Domino theory: When
Domino theory: Impact
Ike said the greatest danger to U.S. was military-industrial complex and not communism
What factors created the economic boom in the U.S. during the 1950s?
National Security policies helped maintain econmoic growth by keeping raw materials and energy flowing from the Third World, abundant supplies of inexpensive oil and natural gas lowered production costs and allowed industries to replace things with less costly and polluting enery sources. Newer industries, new suburbs, and residents exemplified the consumer abundance.
How was the term "affluent" used in the text to describe economic life in the U.S.?
It fit nicely with the dominant vision that celebrated constant economic growth and direction attention away from the economic inqequalities that still persisted. It shifted the focus to make everyone appear wealthy. (not wealthy v/s/ poverty)
What were the "prices" associated with the water-diversion projects?
The government had to spend billions of dollars on dams, irrigation controls, and reservoirs due to technology and expensive bureaucracies to sustain them, local communities lost power to government agencies, large corporations pushed out small farmers, American Indians reservations flooded, environment goes to critical condition
what workers made after paychecks are adjusted for inflation. In 50s they rose and jobs were plentiful.
what workers recieve in terms of health insurance, paid vacation time, and pension plans. in 50s they improved and job security was generally high
Contrast C. Wright Mill's "power elite" theory with the idea of "pluralism"
"power elite" was when only corporate were members of this small elite that dominated American policy making and claimed that this elite made all crucial decisions on foreign and domestic issues. "pluralism" was the more dominant view where no single group could dominate the political process because there was a broad range of different interest groups
What factors led to the growth of religion in the 1950s?
Congress was against "atheistic communism" and emphazied religious values. Eisenhower said any religion (3 main one's were Protestant, Catholic, and Jews) were good because they were affirming "spiritual ideals" and "moral rights"
What did William Whyte criticize in "The Organization Man"?
That large corporations were a bad influence on people through social, cultural, and psychological (but not economic) aspects, and employees were just conforming to their employers and losing individualistic values.
What did Vance Packard say about the effect of advertising?
He argued that advertising-especially through appeals to the insecurities of consumers-produced conformity. His book "The Hidden Persuaders" was supposed to help readers "to achieve a creative life in these conforming times when so many people are left with the roles of being customers or spectators."
What was the grear comic book scare?
That comics, especially those displaying sex and violence, was influencing many children and was at fault for juivenile unrest, so the industry quickly embraced self-censorship.
Describe the criticisms of rock 'n' roll music.
Older, family-orientated familes didn't like the sparse lyrics and guitars and saxophones. Religious groups thought it was the sound of the devil. Red-hunters thought it was pro-communist. Segregationt's saw it as a sinister plot by integrationists.
What did Newton Minnow mean by his "vaste wasteland" description?
That television was doing no good for Americans and was influencing us in bad ways.
What new products were developed by growth of television?
Frozen T.V. dinner, T.V. tray, recliner chair, and influential magaizne T.V. guide. T.V. itself became an important symbol for postwar affluence and family life.
What is meant by "seperate spheres"?
A public sphere of work and politics dominated by men and a private sphere of housework and child care reserved for women. Mothers were encouraged to stay at home, family togetherness encouraged, etc.
What kinds of jobs were available for women in the fifties? What was meant by the "family way"?
More and more women were getting jobs, such as nurces, telophone operators, secretaries, and elementary school teachers. However, many medical and law schools/jobs admitted few, if any women. "Family way" just encouraged family togetherness
What was decided in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas?
In 1954, Cheif Justice Earl Warren wrote an unaminous thing which declared that statemandated segregation of public schools violated the constitutional right of African American students to equal protection of the law. This implied for all public facilities to take the challenge of equalizing themselves.
What was the "Southern Manifesto"?
Denounced the court's antisegregationist rulings as a "clear abuse of judicial power" and promised support for any state intented to "recist forced integration by any lawful means." Many people agreed with this and there were new racist organizations/
What was the Emment Till case? What impact did it have on the civil rights movement?
2 white Mississippians murdered 14 year old Emmett Till, who was a visitor from Chicago. Mamie Till Bradley insisted everybody see his corpse (which was very brutal) and that his killers be punished. But when their case came to trial, the all-white Mississippi jury found them not guilty and they later said they were. This led to direct actions by blacks.
Why did many citizens of Montgomery, Alabama boycott the bus sytem? What role did Rosa Parks play?
They boycotted the bus sytem to grant more seats to black riders, and later on complete desegregation on public transportation. Rosa Park's played a role in raising their original goal to complete desegregation. She got arrested.
How did the Montgomery Bus Boycott affect Martin Luther King's national recoginition?
He and other black ministers made Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). It was more activist than the NAACP and embodied Dr. King's broad vision of using passive civil disobedience to obtain social change. He hoped civil disobedience would show the moral evils of racism and he was able to carry the antidiscrimination message out to the rest of the nation and world.
Why was it difficult to get antidiscrimination bills passed in Congress?
Congress remained deeply divided in racial issues. It was very hard to get an act through Congress. However, for more than 80 years an act passed for civil rights, The Civil Rights Act of 1957. It established proceedures for lawsuits by blacks, who claimed their right to vote had been shortened. Congress discrimination got better though...? Like when lyndon was president...?
Why was Eisenhower called a "gradulaist" in matters of civil rights?
He was reluctant to tackle racial issues head on, although he supported the Civil Rights Act of 1957. He didn't want to take too big of steps. He thought there wasn't much the government could do anyways, it was up to the people and their opinions and attitudes.
How did Eisenhower respond to the challenge posed by Govenor Fabus of Arkansas?
He put the Arkansas National Guard under federal control and enlarged it to have U.S. army members. Black students, escorted by armed troops, were finally able to enter Central High.
How did racial discrimination affect international relations?
It was a bad example in spreading democracy and sec. of state Dulles suggested that racial conflict at home was "not helpful to the influence of the U.S. abroad"
Describe the following American Indian policies: termination
terminate the states of Indians as "wards of the U.S." and give them rights and priveleges pertaining to American citizenship. (failed)
Describe the following American Indian policies: relocation
Indians encourgaged to leave rural reservations and seek jobs in urban areas. (failed)
what factors led to an increase in the Spanish-speaking population in the U.S.?
Puerto Ricans began moving to the U.S. Their government encouraged this to ease population in their country but to maintain cultural ties with the island. although U.S. citizens, they only spoke spanish. also, many mexicans went to CA because WWII aftermath needed them to fill jobs, but they never went home and became illegal immigrants.
describe the policy of "red-lining"?
many banks and loan institutions adopted this policy which denied funds for home-buying and business expansion is areas that continued agin buildings, dense populations, growing numbers of people who were not from European descent. FHS prefered suburbs.
Summarize the urban policies of the Truman and Eisenhower adminstrations.
They seemed spectacular failures. Urban renewal projects disrupted urban housing patterns and also helped disperse industries that had long provided entry-level jobs for unskilled workers.
What was meant by Eisenhower's "moderate Republicanism?"
He had a lot of democratic initiatives and expanded social security system, higher min. wage, better unemployment benefits, and a new department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). But on urban and racial issues he hesitated to enlarge government power.
How did Goldwater and Buckley feel about Ike's policies?
Goldwater, militantly anticommunist, said Eisenhower wasn't conservative enough. he thought eisenhower was, by refusing to take stronger measrues against Soviet Union and not making "victory" the goal of policy, endangering national security and taking "New Dea antics" in his own domestic policy making. Buckley was trying to frame a new conservative message and attracted what he saw as a "collectivist" and antireligious tilt in American higher education and defended capitilism and Christianity.
Summarize the highlights of the Gaither Report.
said soviets GNP was greater than the U.S.'s and there was great military expansionism. It urged immediate increase in about 25% in the Pentagons budget and longer term programs for fallout shelters, developing intercontinental ballistic missiles, and expanding military forces.
what needs did the National Defense Education Act emphasize?
it gave money to college-level programs in science, engineering, foreign languages, and social sciences
Why did southern representatives fear federal aid to education?
it might bring pressures for racial integration
what role did Sputnik play?
Sputnik was a satellite that the soviets launched. it fueled a reasearch and development (R&D) effort, overseen by NASA, to harness American education and technological know-how so that outer space might be used for the benefit of "all mankind"
summarize Michael Harrington's belief about U.S. society
claimed that economic inequality remained as urgent as it had in the 1930s and made dramatic stories about how poverty continued to ravage the bodies and spirits of people whose lives had been untouched by the recent economic growth
how did the public reaction to the Kennedy/Nixon debates differ between those who watched television and those who listened on radio? why?
people who listened to the radio gave Nixon much higher marks than those who watched television because Nixon appeared nervous and pale and Keenedy appeared cool and tan.
How did Johnson help JFK win in 1960?
his regional appeal in the Deep South and home state of Texas
summarize JFK's foreign policy goals.
he wanted vigorous action in foreign policy by raising the defense budget, military assistance, propoganda agencies, covert action, Peace Corps-sent young Americans to other nations to undercut communisms appeal. made "alliance for progress" which offered $20 billion in loans to Latin America over a 10 year period to stop the spread of anti-Americanism. it failed
what was the result of the Bay of Pigs invasion? What was JFK's reaction?
cuban exiles went to the Bay of Pigs to oust Castro from leader of Cuba, and forces loyal to Castro quickly surrounded and imprisoned them. JFK refused air support for them and at first denied U.S. involvement. Cuba strengthened ties with Soviet Union and hated America more.
What were the causes of the Cuban Missle Crisis? Describe the "quarantine" strategy.
CMC was Soviets sending sophisticated weapons to Cuba upon Castro's request, probably because of it's anti-Americanism. Quarantine-Strategic Air Command went of full alert for a possible nuclear conflict. CMC was much more serious than people realized and sec. of defense McNamera didn't know if the world would last. there was also a direct telophone line put in between D.C. and Moscow
what was JFK's strategy of "flexible response"?
a new policy that proposed using a variety of different methods to combat communist movements around the globe. It didn't worn for South Vietnam, and North Vietnam in turn amped up Military pressure on the South.
What did JFK hope to accomplish with the lowering of tax rates?
Lower tax rates for everyone and special deductions for corporations that invested in new plant and equipment, his economic brain argued, would spur new investment in facilities and jobs. democrats thought this would only benefit corporations and the wealthy.
what was a "sit-in"?
thing in the civil rights movement in which young activists challenged local segregation laws by demanding equal access to service at racially segregated places at restauraunts, bus and train stations, and other public facilities
describe instances where JFK used federal intervention in the civil rights movement
dispatched U.S. marshalls to protect the freedom righers. called on National Guard troops to prevent segreagtionist mobs from blocking court-ordered integration at several education institutions. Banned racial discrimination in federall financed housing. sent congress a bull that called for faster trials in cases involving racial discrimination in voting practices.
what pleas did JFK make in his televised comments about civil rights?
said racial violence was slowing nation's economic and social progress and weakening the respect with which the rest of the world reguards America
what was the goal of the 1963 March on Washington? what was the highlight of the march?
200,000 people marched through the Capital to see a broad coalition of civil rights and labor organizations. highlight was Martin Luther King, Jr's "I Have a Dream" speech
What were the findings of the Warren Commission?
Said Oswald killed JFK and Ruby killed Oswald and that both acted alone.
What theries are you aware of reguarding the assassination of JFK?
that his assasination as part of a wider plot with organized crime, that the CIA did it because they didn't like what he was doing in Vietnam, etc.