Traditional writing process
writer (word processor)->editor->designer->typesetter->layout->paste-up artist (galleys+layout)->camera operator->press operator (final print job)
(1985) "What you see is what you get" layout program: birth of Desktop Publishing.
Events that made DTP possible (4)
1. Apple Computer Laser Printer (300 dpi)
2. Postscript (allows resizing and editing of type) works for laser printer.
3. Pagemaker released by Aldus Corporation (coined the term DTP)
4. Macintosh II released, much more suitable for DTP.
Software needed for DTP
page layout program, word processor, graphics program, fonts package
Hardware needed for DTP
Computer (PC/Mac), Monitor (high resolution), Secondary storage, Scanner, Printer (PostScript compatible), Imagesetters (high resolution output)
50% of the page covered with text
Fixations: .25 seconds of focus
the vertical stroke of text that extends above the main body of text
the vertical stroke or tail that descends below the baseline of text
the line on which the main body of the letters rest.
are made up of small bits that are turned on or off (1s & 0s). When you resize these fonts, you just get bigger bits. Curved areas usually get jagged.
creates the many different sizes of bitmaps at the right resolution.
the file extension of an XML format for reflowable digital books and publications.
.epub open standards (3)
1. Open Publication Software (OPS)
2. Open Packaging Format (OPF)
3. Open Container Format (OCF)
2 Popular E-Book Formats
.epub (international standard) and mobi (kindle)
supports JPG, GIF, and PNG (limit to 1 MB)
Computerization of New Media
The field of study that deals with the content, the history and the effects of various media on our society.
Birth of "New Media"
1980s Alan Kay and his coworkers at Xerox made the pc available to the individual, rather than having a big organization in charge of them.
1984 Ronal Rice described it as: the communication technologies that enable or facilitate user-to-user interactivity and interactivity between user and information.
3 Kinds of Media Communication
1. Interpersonal: One to one
2. Mass Media: One to many
3. New Media: Many to many
Types of Communication
1. Intrapersonal: when we talk to ourselves to develop our thoughts and ideas.
2. Interpersonal: when people talk to each other.
3. Group: when we speak to an audience.
5 fundamental steps to communication: Shannon-Weaver
1. human stimulation and thought
2. encoding of thought to message
3. transmission of the message
4. decoding of message into thought
5. internalization of the message
3 kinds of noise
1. channel noise
2. environmental noise
3. semantic noise
1. informational: doesn't understand the language
2. physical: fatigued or impaired
3. psychological: overzealous about this issue (ex. PETA)
World Wide Web
Invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee who worked at CERN
Users: people who use the web
Access providers: companies that provide internet access
Content providers: anyone who creates a website.
a nonlinear way for people to receive information.
hotspots in the text that take the reader to other related document.
non-text hotspots that take the reader to other related documents.
saving documents, photos, memory etc. to the web so it can be accessed on any device that can access the web.
2 types of digital images
Bitmap: grid of pixels
Vector: based on mathematical calculations, made up of paths and strokes
dots per inch: resolution of an image when printed
lines per inch: varying dot pattern that printers use to create images. higher lpi=more detail
aka color depth or pixel depth it measures how much color information is available to display or print each pixel
number of pixels in each image
Red, Green, Blue: images stored in 3 channels, each 8 bits which makes 256 different color values per color. When all colors are mixed it makes white (additive colors!)
Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, blacK: subtractive colors that when mixed create black. good for color separations
Index color system
reduces the image to a single channel with a maximum depth of eight bits. Thus the maximum palette size is 256.
allows the browser to adapts to any computer system's color palette in order to view the image correctly
Tagged Image File Format: used mostly for publishing. Can be easily transported between mac and pc. most widely used printing format on both mac and pc.
Graphic Interchange Format: developed by Compuserve for transmission of images over networks (must be converted to indexed colors). Most graphics
Joint Photographic Expert Group: a set of standards for compressing images. Some data is lost but the resulting images are good enough for transmission over the internet. Most pictures
windows bitmapped images that are used on most PCs.
standard for displaying images on a mac
Portable Network Graphics: used for the web. They can work with up to 16 million colors. Supports RGB, indexed color, and grayscale imagery.
developed hypertext by expanding on Bush's idea for a machine that would mimic human thinking.
web pages should be 640x480 pixels to fit users screen size.
Sequence Information structure
The simplest way to organize information is in a sequence where information is presented in a linear fashion. Information flows as a narrative time line
Web Info structure
like a spider web, the goal is to present info in an associative thought and a free flow of ideas.
Hierarchical info structure
The home page set the expectations, structure and image for the rest of the site. The users want to have a quick, clear understanding of what is available.