-Mostly woman accused
-Happened in countries that were affected by the Protestant Reformation
-The Catholic church made a connection between witchcraft and the devil
-Used the Inquisition to fight witchcraft
-More than 100,000 people were accused of being witches throughout Europe
Thirty Year' War
a religious war between the Catholics and Protestants, which resulted in the political restructuring of Europe and the development of nation states - the Dutch Republic, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, granted religious freedom in many parts of Europe and encouraged the secularization of government.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
The belief that a monarch's power derives from God and represents Him on earth.
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
became dominant power in the government. Continued the centralizing powers of Richelieu, but in 1648 his unoular attempts to increase roal revenues and expand the state bureaucracy resulted in a widesread rebellion known as the Fronde.
king of France from 1643 to 1715. His long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
War of Spanish Succession
-ruled w/ Ivan V at first
-founder of St. Petersburg
-war w/ Ottomans and Swedes
United Provinces of the Netherlands-1st half of 17th century was golden age-govt. consisted of organized confederation of 7 provinces each w/ rep. govt.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)
Charles I/English Civil War
tried to impose taxes without Parliament's consent. Puritans beheaded Charles.
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)
James II/Glorious Revolution
king James ii of England caused the Glorious Revolution when he had his child baptized as a roman catholic
English Bill of Rights
document that gave England a government based on a system of laws and a freely elected parliament
the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
the belief that the earth was at the center of the universe and that the sun and other celestial objects revolved around the earth
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
German astronomer who first stated 3 laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
built his own telescope, built on new theories about astronomy,
English mathematician and physicist. Remembered for developing the calculus and for his law of gravitation and his three laws of motion (1642-1727).
worked on the human body through dissection
English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood
An English physicist and chemist, this man discovered the nature of elements and compounds and the basis of modern chemistry.
French philosopher and mathematician
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
the doctrine that reason is the right basis for regulating conduct
English statesman and philosopher. Precursor of British empiricism; advocated inductive reasoning (1561-1626)
medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings
Philospher/scientist/mathematician who invented the calculator and worked with probability, conic sections. Famous in math texbooks for his "triangle" of numbers.
education that results in understanding and the spread of knowledge
doubt about the truth of something
______ ___________ brings knowledge of completely different cultures and this brings questions of what Europeans have previously accepted religiously, etc.
"Natural Man"/"Noble Savage"
Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason.
an opportunity to start over without prejudice
Baron de Montesquieu
believed government should have separation of powers. Executive, legislative, and judicial branches
Philosopher that defended the freedom of thought.
God built the universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.
Wrote the encyclopedia
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Baron d' Holbach
wrote "System of Nature", which said humans are only machines and have no free will- created a rift between atheist and deist thinkers within the enlightened group
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses
the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
According to Rousseau the general will is sacred and absolute, reacting the common interests of the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of ultimate power.
Informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
impractical romantic ideals and attitudes
thought women needed education and equality in marriage
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Crime and Punishment
believed that punishment should fit the crime, in speedy and public trials, and that capital punishment should be done away with completely
cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
prejudice against Jews
the religious beliefs and practices of Methodists characterized by concern with social welfare and public morals
Founded the Methodist church
exaggerated or affected piety and religious zeal
written in 1804, philosophy of jesus of nazareth, took out all miracles and supernatural events 1819-1820 the life and morals of jesus of nazareth
having the sun as the center