ferment butyrate to acetate for energy (syntroph - cooperative relationship with organism to degrade a compoud
oxygenic photosynthesis (but in presence of hydrogen sulfide will perform anoxygenic)
anaerobic eukaryote flagellated protozoan with hydrogenosomes to oxidize pyruvate to generate ATP (substrate level)
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen) GAINING ELECTRONS
a substance that can accept electrons from an electron donor, becoming reduced in the process
an organic molecule that serves as an electron carrier by being oxidized (losing electrons) to NAD+ and reduced (gaining electrons) to NADH
Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.
are compounds with the functional group C-S-CO-C. They are the product of esterification between a carboxylic acid and a thiol. Thioesters are widespread in biochemistry, the best known derivative being acetyl-CoA.
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
(PHB) a common storage material of prokaryotic cells consisting of a polymer of b-hydroxybutyrate or another b-alkanoic acid or mixtures of b-alkanoic acids.
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
Organic compound with a backbone of three carbon atoms. Two molecules form as end products of glycolysis
refers to the process in which two or more bacteria break down a substrate which, individually,the bacteria could not do alone.
Lactic acid bacteria that carry out simple fermentation; lactic acid is only product
Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in lactic acid usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.
archaebacteria found in anaerobic environments such as animal intestinal tracts or sediments or sewage and capable of producing methane
Lactic acid bacteria that produce more than one product --> ethanol and carbon dioxide, as well as lactic acid.
mixed acid fermentation
E. coli, when bacteria ferment pyruvate to many different acids at the same time
produces butanediol and carbon dioxide; involved in the Voges Proskauer test using the biproduct acetoin
is a membrane-bound organelle of ciliates, trichomonads and fungi which produces molecular hydrogen and ATP. This organelle is thought to have most likely evolved from mitochondria.
citric acid cycle
in cellular respiration, series of chemical reactions that break down glucose and produce ATP; energizes electron carriers that pass the energized electrons on to the electron transport chain
electron transport system (chain)
A sequence of proteins (cytochromes) embedded in the inner membrane that surrounds a pigment complex.
the first of the proteins in the electron transport chain to recieve the electrons; complex. membrane-embedded enzyme
Protein containing a flavin mononucleotide prosthetic group, is the first acceptor for NADH's electrons
one of a family of proteins with both iron and sulfur tightly bound; passes the electrons to a compound called ubiquinone
an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
Small, lipid-soluble, mobile electron carrier molecule found in the respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains.
expel protons to proton motive force
proton motive force
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
stored inbetween membranes
organelles found in green sulfur bacteria that act as light funnels that collect the relatively few photons in the water and store the light energy in food molecules
The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron, excited by light energy, to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
An accessory pigment, either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis.
Chlorella (eukaryotic green alga)
Synechocystis (prokaryotic cyanobacteria)
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
Light-independent reactions of photosynthesis cyclic pathway that forms glucose from CO2
Reverse citric acid pathway
Chlorobium (green sulfur Bacteria)
Aquifex (Bacteria hyperthermophile)
Chloroflexus (green sulfur Bacteria, anoxygenic phototroph)
Sulfolobus (Archaea, Crenarcheaota)
Treponema primitia (spirochete Bacteria)
The formation of glycogen, a glucose storing compound, from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates.
condensation of a sugar molecule like glucose with a nucleotide
uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP) for activation of glucose