Chapter 16: Psychological Disorders

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psychological disorder

deviant distressful, and dysfunctional behavior problems

medical model

The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured

DSM-IV

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

anxiety disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

generalized anxiety disorder

An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

panic disorder

An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

phobia

An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation

obsessive-compulsive disorder

An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions

mood disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

major depressive disorder

A mood disorder in which a person, for no appearant reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

mania

A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

bipolar disorder

A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

schizophrenia

A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

delusions

False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that accompany psychotic disorders

personality disorders

Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

antisocial personality disorder

A personality disorder in which the person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity

post-traumatic stress disorder

an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.

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