knowledge about our own learning and thinking processes
3 meta-cognitive skills (PME)
-Planning: How much time to give, what to skim, what's my goal?
-Monitoring: awareness of progress, self-tests, Do I understand?
-Evaluating: new strategy? Have I studied enough?What did not work?
3 meta-cognitive types of knowledge (p.23)
-knowing learning strategies ( different types of strategies, personal learning style)
-knowing How to use strategies (e.g. being able to activate prior knowledge)
-knowing When/ How to apply strategies (e.g. activating prior knowledge at the right moment)
Evaluating the accuracy, credibility and worth of information and line of reasoning e.g. Should I really look the way media says I should?
3 Forms of critical thinking (VAP)
2. Argument Analysis
3. Hypothesis testing
Form of critical thinking. Understanding and evaluating persuasive techniques. - So the pill works, HOW does it work? What about side effects?
Form of critical thinking. Evaluation of reasons that do or do not support a conclusion.
Pros and cons of putting more money into a car so you can sell it for more$$.
4 steps for general problem solving
1. Find and frame the problem( what is the REAL issue? Slow elevators or bored ppl?)
2.Develop good problem solving strategies
4. Rethink and redefine problems/ solutions ( reflection, feedback)
A step-by step approach to achieving a goal
- domain specific
-e.g. KD cooking directions, long division
- strategy which may lead to the correct answer
Estimating the frequency of an event based on how quickly it comes to mind. E.g Road rage! It's everywhere!!
Evaluating ( assuming) that a case beings to a particular category. [what we expect as the most common thus probable choice)
- e.g. If a person is slim and likes poetry, is he more likely to be a truck driver or a professor?
(There are more truck drivers than professors)
Being unable to use a tool or object in a new way
Attempting to solve a problem in a way that has worked before instead of trying a new more appropriate strategy
Those with low meta-cognitive skills have what problems with meta-cognitive learning?
P: underestimate time required to complete a task
M: may not asses performance accurately
E: may only use one/ inappropriate strategy
What predicts better performance?
Aptitude or meta-cognition?
Meta- cognition. High meta-cognitive children outperformed low meta-cognitive children, regardless of their overall aptitude level.
Among high meta-cognitive children, no difference between those high and low aptitude groups
Form of critical thinking. Looking at causal VS. correlation findings. Are the students happy because the teacher is happy? Or are they happy for another reason?
Using an analogy for problem solving
Familiar examples can serve as analogies or models and help explain how an example is related to the problem
e.g. Tumor Vs. Fortress problem
Emphasizes intrinsic motivation sources. A sense of confidence, self-esteem, autonomy and self- actualization lead to motivation
Social cognitive theory
Integration of behaviour and cognitive approach. Expectancy + values. One must believe that they can achieve their goal, and must also believe that said goal is important or has value. E.g. professional swimmers, beleibe that they can do well, and also have placed value on swimming.
To motivate students and help them succeed, a teacher must A and B student's interest
To motivate students and help them to succeed, a teacher must CAPTURE and MAINTAIN their interest. E.g. math problems which relate to real life, interesting context
People play roles and change their behaviour to mirror their thinking. Actions are regulated by plans, goals, and attributions
People behave to obtain reinforcements and avoid punishment. But, external rewards may undermine motivation/ effort
Factors that arouse, direct and maintain behaviour
Activities aroused by self-constructed rewards. E.g. curiosity, interests, pride, personal values. The activity in itself must be rewarding.
Created by external factors such as rewards or punishments. E.g. study to pass the course, work to earn money to buy a car etc.
External rewards help or hinder motivation?
External rewards hinder motivation because targets will begin to anticipate the reward and only act to receive the reward, so once the reward is removed, behaviour rapidly decreases. In children, when a reward is associated wit an activity, we begin to do that activity less unless there is a reward ( puzzles)
Doing something because it is required and will either provide a reward or avoid punishment ( highly external)
Doing something to gain personal rewards/ punishment (still motivated by SOMETHING, but the thing comes from you) E.g. pride or shame or guilt
Acceptance of tasks for their value. Doing a task to reap the benefits, even if the task is disliked. E.g. eating your veggies (now motivated by the value, not a reward/ punishment)
Participating and putting up with boring/ disliked things because you care deeply about the content/ domain etc.( reading an awful book for the material) The content is most important, not the reward or punishment of doing it.
Shift of motivation from external to internal reasons
Self- determination theory, Three factors (CAR)
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are continuous variables. Three factors contribute to the internalization of motivation. Competence, autonomy, and relatedness
The need to feel belongingness. Positive relationships increase the likelihood of student success, especially for minority students. E.g. when students help to plan class rules, they feel involved and see that the tasks are valued, so they come to value them.
One's sense of freedom or control over their life. Desire to have choice and free will ( from reward, punishment etc)
e.g. why do you have to study math?-When given a reason or a choice, students are more motivated. However, parents and students seem to prefer controlling teachers...
Feeling of self- efficacy. Belief that if you try hard, you will succeed. Students are more likely to care about a task if the goal is challenging but not seemingly impossible
The Information-Processing Approach
Emphasizes that students manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it. As children grow, they gradually develop an increased capacity for information processing.
3 Characteristics of the Information-processing Approach
1) thinking (information processing)
2) Change mechanics ( the processes behind thinking)
3) Self- modification (using knowledge/ learning to better oneself)
fast and effortless processing that requires little or no focused attention (comes with practice of strategies. Means you don't always need to learn new strategies)
creation of new procedures for processing information
( information -processing approach)
Trnasfer ( information- processing approach)
Application of prior learning/ knowledge to new situations or problems
Memory ( 3 stages)
The inter-connectivity of encoding, storage and retrieval of information over time.
1st stage of memory. The process by which information becomes memory
2nd stage of memory. The retention of memory over time
3rd/ final stage of memory. Taking information out of storage.
3 processes required for good encoding (AMP)
-Attention; must pay attention to the info. Improves with age, can ignore irrelevant information and shift their attention.
-Meaningful learning; the info must be 'important', not gobbledy-goop
- Prior knowledge; helps make sense of new info if it relates to something we already know
Rehearsal/ Rote learning
the conscious repetition of information over time to increase the amount of time said information will stay in storage. Good for memorizing lists for a short period of time/ when info has no meaning
Deep processing/ Meaningful learning
Looking at the semantic meaning of words or information. Knowledge is fully understood and is related to other known facts. Most effective for long-term memory
The extensiveness of information processing involved in memory. I.e. using examples/ personal experience to aid memory.
Levels of processing theory
Information can be processed at the SHALLOW, INTERMEDIATE, or DEEP level. I.e. A letter has a shape--> a thing with four legs and barks is a dog--> my friend has a dog who is fluffy and likes to play etc.
A memory organization strategy that involves grouping information into meaningful units which can be remembered as individual units. I.e. Ahotbookinacityiscool --> A hot book in a city is cool.
Short-term retention. Usually less than a second. Holds information from the world in it's original sensory form ( the exact pitch of a birdsong)
Usually lasts 30seconds, and can retain 7+/- 2 items (5-9).
3 part system where people manipulate information as they perform tasks. Influenced b y emotion/ mood
Large and long-lasting capacity. Virtually unlimited, and the efficiency of retrieval is incredible. I.e. who was your first-grade teacher? What is an igloo? Etc.
Declarative/ Explicit memory
" knowing that". Being able to recount something or reflect on something.
Procedural/ Implicit memory
" knowing how". Knowledge of a skill or ability, very difficult to verbalize. I.e. riding a bicycle, speaking without thinking of syntax (grammar) rules, or typing.
Episodic memory (subtype of explicit)
Retention of where and when things happened. (where you live, what time of day did you wake up etc.)
Semantic memory (subtype of explicit)
General knowledge about the world. Includes; academic (division), fields of expertise (physical movements of synchro), and 'stuff' ( Hillary Duff married a Canadian hockey player)
Serial Position Effect
Recall for items is better at the beginning and end of a sequence.
Aspects of physical/ emotional state are learned with other information, so it will be easier to remember the new information in a similar context. I.e. remembering an old routine when the song comes on in a store
Primacy/ Recency effects
things at the beginning / things at the end are best recalled. AKA the Serial Position Effect
Recall VS recognition
- a memory task were students must retrieve knowledge for tasks such as fill-in-the-blank
- a memory task where students must identify learned information such as multiple-choice questions.
A retrieval failure due to a lack of effective cues. I.e. remembering colours only when given examples
We forget things when other information 'gets in the way'. So study for your next test last so that the information ( french grammer, for example) won't be 'blocked' (by Sociological theories)
We forget things because the neural pathways disintegrate over time. Different types of memory whither at different rates. Memories tied to strong emotions will be recalled better ( molar mass of Boron VS where you where when you found out about 9/11)
Believes that intelligence, personality, abilities, etc and stable and fixed. Concerned with performance and appearing smart
Intelligence/ ability is malleable, and it can be developed, changed, and improved. Concerned about skill improvement and prefer challenging tasks which can help them learn.
If children are praised for their abilities, they are more likely to do ( better or poorer?) on a test, after doing badly on a preceding test.
They will do poorer, because they will feel discouraged and badly about themselves after the second task so, will not want to persist on the third test.
Attribution, and the 3 dimension
The explanation of the cause of an event.
Locus (int/external), Stability (stable/not), Controllability (cont/ uncontrollable)
Internal Vs. External Attribution ( give example)
" I got the part because I'm a good actor" Vs. " I didn't get the part because the director is biased"
Stable Vs. Unstable attribution ( give Ex.)
" I did poorly because the test was really hard" Vs. " I did poorly because I was sick" ( The condition is either always going to be the same, or fluctuate) Linked to expectations for future performance.
Controllable Vs. Uncontrollable attribution ( give ex)
"I did well because I studied a lot" Vs. " I did well because I wore my lucky sock" Linked to guilt or anger, if we feel we did not practice enough, may lead to guilt or anger ( missed a scholarship b/c/ adviser sent application in late)
Three factors which undermine intrinsic motivation
1. Deadlines set by others
2. Threats in case of failure
3. Competition ( the goal becomes victory, not learning)
What are the four stages of motivation from most extrinsic to most intrinsic? ( Ex-In-Id-In)
1) External motivation
Are there cultural differences regarding autonomy and motivation?
Yes- western children work longer on puzzles they choose, but East Asian children work longer when an in-group member chooses the puzzle ( like a friend or a parent)- Interdependent self- concept
How do you promote a sense of competence ( self- efficacy)
By using feedback! Must be informative, not controlling. "you did well because you followed my instruction" ( controlling)
"you did well because you understood the theory" (informative)
Teacher's Reactions: Sympathy
Teacher does not believe the student can succeed. Accepts low quality work and gives sympathy marks.
Teacher's Reactions: Anger
Teacher believes the student can perform better with more effort. Has higher expectations and feels the student is not working hard enough.
Unsolicited help gives what kind of cues?
The teacher is showing that they have low expectations for the student. (lack of ability)
Teachers often underestimate the ability of students who are (UML)
Unattractive, minority, or low-income family students are often underestimated.
Learned Helplessness/ Failure Syndrome
Greatest motivational problem. Attribute failure to stable, internal, uncontrollable causes. " I can't do it, I suck at math". Less likely to seek help and believe that nothing can be done to help. Leads to low self-esteem because they tried hard but still failed ( think it must be a lack of natural ability)
People are most likely to attribute failure to _____ factors. To protect ______.
People are motivated to redirect the cause of failure to 'external' factors to protect 'self-esteem'
Some people try to protect self-esteem by not _________.
Some people try to protect self-esteem by not trying hard. Then the failure is due to a lack of effort and not ability.
Who is most likly to use self- handicapping? (EtPgNc)
-Entity theorists ( natural ability)
- Performance goals ( also entity theory)
- Not confident in successes
Before- instruction assessment
Knowing the current level and looking at past grades
Level of student responses
After- Instruction Assessment
Level of student mastery
(If students know the criteria and requirements, assessment is meaningful)
Traditional Tests (O,Sr)
-Objective (single answers)
-Selected response items ( T/F, MC, matching)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Multiple choice Questions
Ad: Less influenced by guessing, more objective than essays, can provide diagnostic information
Dis: scores can be influenced by reading comprehension ability
Advantages and Disadvantages of True/ False Questions
Ad: good if there's only 2 options, can answer many items, easy to score
Dis: Should not be used directly from text ( promotes rote learning), guessing is probable 50/50
Advantages and Disadvantages of short answer questions
Ad: allows students to recall info
dis: typically measures rote learning, (also writing skills)
Advantages and Disadvantages of essay testing
Ad: assess complex materials, can be combined with many topics
Dis: takes time and covers less material than MC
cognitive perspective, the idea that people are motivated to deal effectively with their environment, to master their world, and to process information efficiently
Social Motives/ Need for affliction
arise from our relationships with others and the social world. Human need to establish warm, close, personal relationships