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An increase in machine-made goods beginning in England during the 1700s.

What was the Industrial Revolution?

Small farmers became tenant farmers or moved to the cities, enclosures became landmarks of wealthy landowners, and landowners experimented with new agricultural methods.

What was a result of the agricultural revolution?

land, labor, capital

What were the three factors of production required for industrialization?

industrialization

What was the main cause of the process of urbanization that occurred in 19th century Britain and elsewhere in western Europe?

looked down upon

How did landowners and aristocrats view wealthy members of the middle class?

forbade engineers, mechanics, and toolmakers from leaving the country

What did Britain do to keep industrial secrets from the United States?

not personally responsible for its debts

What was the benefit of being a stockholder in a corporation?

A policy that let the owners of industry set working conditions without govt. interference.

What is the laissez-faire policy?

unions

What is the name for the voluntary associations of workers seeking labor reforms?

abolition of slavery, women's rights, and public education

List examplels of reform movements.

Midwest

Which region of the country had the most miles of railroad track in 1890?

West

In which region were there no railroads in 1840?

1,000

How many miles of tracks were laid from northern Washington to southernmost point in California?

Edinburgh, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, London

Which of the following cities ranked from the smallest to the biggest in 1850?

Glasgow

Which city had about 320,000 people in 1850?

Birmingham and Liverpool

Which two cities had about the same population in 1800?

Birmingham, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Glasgow

Which cities had fewer than 100,000 people in 1800?

Liverpool

Which city showed the most population growth between 1800 and 1850?

It led to population growth, increased food supplies, and caused farmers to lose land and seek other work.

How did the Agricultural Revolution lead to the Industrial Revolution?

Positively, by Britain's highly developed banking system, availability of loans, and climate of progress.

How did Britain's economy affect the process of industrialization?

it launched the railway age, which brought transportation to a new level

What was the impact of the steam engine on the production of British goods?

It made the population grow faster than the housing supply.

How did the Industrial Revolution affect cities?

widespread sickness

What factor most contributed to the shorter life span of those living in cities as opposed to those in the country?

Some members of the middle class achieved top positions in society.

How did the new middle class change British society?

refuse to interfere in any economic matters

What was a key idea in the free-market system?

railroad expansion

Which factor played a major role in the industrialization of the United States?

The U.S. Supreme Court created social security for retired workers.

Which was not a legislative reform in the 1800s?

to abolish slavery and the slave trade

What did William Wilberforce fight for in the 1800s?

205,334

How many miles of track were added between 1840 and 1890?

east and west

In which two directions did railroads trnsport goods and people in 1890?

Texas

Which state had mostly east and west railroad routes in 1890?

2,600 miles of tracks

How many miles of tracks were laid across Texas?

The western territories were still new, industry was more developed in the East and Midwest, and East cost ports were part of major trade routes.

What are the reasons why the West had fewer miles of railroad track than the East in 1890?

London

Which city had more than two million people in 1850?

Liverpool

Which city showed the greatest percentage increase in population?

Birmingham, Liverpool, Glasgow

Which cities more than tripled in population?

60,000

The population difference between Liverpool and Glasgow in 1850 was what?

Industrial Revolution

The main reason for the population growth in all cities between 1800 and 1850 was what?

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