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Review for the science test on cells

diffusion

any type of passive transport in which molecules in a HIGH concentration move to an area of a LOW concentration.

osmosis

the diffusion of water.

equilibrium

the state in which the concentration of molecules is EQUAL in both areas.

active transport

a type of transport in which energy is required for the transportation of molecules to move from a LOW concentration to a HIGH concentration.

passive transport

the movement through a membrane, doesn't require any energy to move molecules from a HIGH concentration to a LOW concentration.

endocytosis

the act of taking materials into a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane.

exocytosis

the act of releasing the contents of a vesicle.

Hooke

Discovered cells for the first time in 1665 while looking at pieces of cork through a compound light microscope.

Schleiden

In 1838, he said that cells are the basic unit of organization in plants.

Schwann

In 1839, he said that cells are the basic unit of organization in animals.

Virchow

In 1855, he said that all cells come from other cells.

mitosis

In eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes. All of the organelles duplicate.

interphase

a part of the cell's life cycle in which the cell grows, the DNA is copied, and the organelles duplicate.

prophase

a part of the cell's life cycle in which the nuclear membrane disappears and the chromosomes form

metaphase

a part of the cell's life cycle in which the chromosomes line up in the center of the cell and the spindle fibers form

telophase

the opposite of the prophase;the nuclear membrane re-forms, the chromosomes un-coil, and the cell has two nuclei

anaphase

the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

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