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personality

an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

free association

in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

psychoanalysis

freuds theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts, the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

unconscious

according to freud, a reservoir of mostly unecceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. according to contemporary psychologists, informations processing of which we are unaware

id

contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. this operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

ego

the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that, according to freud, mediates among the demands of id supergo and reality. this operates on the reality principle, satisfying the ids desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

superego

the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations

psychosexual stages

the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones

oedipus complex

according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

identification

the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

fixation

according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

defense mechanisms

in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

regression

psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated

reaction formation

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.

projection

psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others

rationalization

defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions

displacement

taking out ones anger or frustration on a person or object that is not the cause of the offense

collective unconscious

Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history

projective test

a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics

TAT

a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

rorschach inkblot test

the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

terror management theory

proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death

self actualization

according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

unconditional positive regard

according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

self concept

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

trait

a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports

personality inventory

a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.

MMPI

the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.

empirically derived test

a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

social cognitive perspective

views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context

reciprocal determinism

the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors you shape your environment and your environment shapes you

personal control

our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate

internal locus of control

the perception that one controls one's own fate

learned helplessness

the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events

spotlight effect

overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders

self esteem

one's feelings of high or low self-worth

self serving bias

a readiness to perceive oneself favorably

oral anal phallic latency genital

list all the psychosexual stages

compensation

a defense mechanism, emphasizing personal strengths in one area to shift focus from failure in another area

denial

a defense mechanism, refusing to accept on obvious situation because of the emotional pain it causes

identification

a defense mechanism, associating with people or groups that are of higher status in order to increase your own status

intellectualization

a defense mechanism, describing painful or emotional personal events in academic or philosophical terms

sublimation

a defense mechanism, using exercise or physical activity as a substitute for sexual energies

adler

who was the neo freudian that agreed childhood was very important but said that social tensions (not sexual) were the key to personality development, said that our behaviors as children are driven by efforts to conquer feelings of inferiority

horney

who was the neo freudian who sought out to balance freuds masculine biases , said childhood anxiety caused by an dependent sense of helplessness triggers our desire for love and security

jung

who was the neo freudian who said unconscious was more than repressed thoughts and feelings, he said we have a collective unconscious, a common reservoir of images and symbols derived from out species universal experiences, explains why people are different cultures share certain myths and images

erikson

who was the neo freudian but believed in freuds psychosexual stages but thought that it was not based on sexuality but on social relationships. his trademark was identity and role confusion which can be an identity crisis or a period when a person decides who they are and where are they going and this must be resolved for a persons identity to be formed

jung

who was the neo freudian that did archetypes?

horney

who was the neo freudian who did basic anxiety

adler

who was the neo freudian who did birth order

jung

who was the neo freudian who did collective unconscious

freud

who did defense mechanisms?

freud

who did ego?

jung

who was the neo freudian who did extroversion

adler

who was the neo freudian who did fictional finalisms

freud

who did ID

erikson

who was the neo freudian who did the identity crisis

jung

who was the neo freudian who did individuation

adler

who was the neo freudian who did inferiority

jung

who was the neo freudian who did introversion

freud

who did psychosexual stages

erikson

who was the neo freudian did psychosocial stages

adler

who was the neo freudian did the style of life

frued

who did the superego

allport

who pioneered trait theory of personality after visiting freud and being disenchanted with psychoanalytical theory? he recognized that some traits are more closely tied to ones self than others like central traits or secondary traits or cardinal traits

central traits

Allport's term for personality characteristics that have a widespread influence on the individual's behavior across situations smart dumb wild sneaky

secondary traits

Allport's term for specific traits that influence behavior in relatively few situations" he gets angry when you try and tickle him" .. situational

cardinal traits

Allport's term to describe personality traits that dominate an individual's life, such as passion to serve others or to accumulate wealth

endomorph

Round and heavy body type friendly and outgoing

ectomorph

a person with a thin non-muscular body.. shy and secretive

mesomorph

muscular and athletic body type.. aggressive

hippocrates

they were really the first to think of personality traits leading to 4 types based on what kind of fluids (called humors) they had too much or too little of.

sanguine

first type of personality traits by hippocrates and greeks, this type is cheerful and optimistic, pleasant to be with, comfortable with his or her work, has an abundant supply of blood

choleric

first type of personality traits by hippocrates and greeks, this type is quick, hot temper, often an aggressive nature. these people have a yellowish complection and tense muscles

phlegmatic

first type of personality traits by hippocrates and greeks , this type are characterized by their slowness, laziness, and dullness

melancholy

first type of personality traits by hippocrates and greeks, this type tends to be sad, even depressed, and take a pessimistic view of the world

openness conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness neuroticism

what are the big 5 personality traits?

mischel

who criticizes trait theory after finding that there was only a .3 correlation between traits and their respected behaviors and argues that personality theorists should consider relationships between traits and situations rather than just stable traits and behaviors is not as consistent as trait theorists claim

depaulo

who wanted to evaluate people voluntary control over their experiences, asked people to act as expressive or inhibited as possible when stating opinions, found that inexpressive people were less expressive than expressive people even where they fake expressiveness visa versa so in other words it is hard to act like someone you are not

the barnum effect

the effect that shows that personality inventory descriptions are vague and people try and agree with an description given to them even if it is the wrong one (horoscopes)

seligman

who strapped dogs into harnesses and gave them electric shocks to teach the dogs that were helpless to avoid the shocks, he then put the dogs in a similar situation where they could not escape but the dogs didn't even try

positive psychology

the scientific study of optimal human functioning, aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive (seligman)

markus

who studied the concept of possible selves includes the selves we dream of becoming and the selves we fear becoming

self concept

beliefs about oneself

self efficacy

fairly specific beliefs about those things at which one excels

individualism

giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications

collectivism

giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly

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