AP Human Geography ch. 9 Review Sheet

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(1) Development

A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.

(2) Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally 1 year).

(3) Where are most of the MDCs located?

North of the 30 degree north latitude, known as the north-south split.

(4) Name the more developed regions.

North America & Europe.

(4) Name the less developed regions.

Latin America, East Asia, Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, sub-Saharan Africa.

(5) What is happening to the difference in per capita GDP between the most developed and less developed regions?

Widening

(6) What is per capita GDP a good indicator of?

A sense of average incomes in various countries, contribution made by the average individual toward generating a country's wealth in a year, and average wealth not its distribution.

(7) Primary Sector & Example

The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining fishing, and forestry.
Example: Mining

(7) Secondary Sector & Example

The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Example: Factory Working

(7) Tertiary Sector & Example

The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people, in exchange for payment.
Example: Banking, Transportation

(8) In MDCs, which sector is seeing employment increasing?

Tertiary

(9) Why are people more productive in MDCs?

Workers in MDCs have access to more machines, tools, and equipment to perform much of the work. The larger per capita in GDP in MDCs in part pays for the manufacture and purchase of machinery, which in turn makes workers more productive and generates more wealth.

(10) Value Added

The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.

(11) What is productivity?

The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.

(12) What are the rates of consumer goods in MDCs?

Telephones 800 , Motor vehicles 400, & Internet users 400 per 1,000 inhabitants.

(12) What are the rates of consumer goods in LDCs?

Telephones 200, Motor vehicles 20, & Internet users 100 per 1,000 inhabitants.

(13) What are the education characteristics of MDCs?

MDCs use part of their greater wealth to provide schools, as a result of better educated people. The number of students per teacher is less than 20, exceeds 98% literacy rate, publish more books, newspapers, and magazines per person, and dominate scientific and nonfiction publishing worldwide.

(14) MDCs vs. LDCs health care programs.

Total expenditures on health care exceed 8% of GDP in MDCs, compared to less than 6% in LDCs. In MDCs, health care is a public service available at little or no cost (payed for by government programs), but in LDCs, private individuals must bay more than half of the cost of health care.

(15) Crude Birth Rate (CBR)

The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.

(16) Crude Death Rate (CDR)

The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society.

(17) Do MDCs sped a higher percentage of GDP spent on education? Why or why not?

Yes. The higher the level of development, the greater are both the quantity and the quality of a country's educational services.

(18) Which MDC has a health care program that resembles an LDC?

US (private individuals are required to pay an average of 55% of health care)

(19) Dependency rate in LDCs?

...

(20) How is Western Europe different from Anglo-America?

...

(21) The Anglo-American region is the world's leading producer of what things?

...

(22) Where are petroleum reserves found in the Middle East?

States that border the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

(23) How does the Middle East show a promise of becoming more developed?

...

(24) What LDC region has the highest percentage of people living in urban areas?

Latin America

(25) What was Japan's asset for promoting development?

Abundant supply of people willing to work hard for low wages.

(26) In the decades following the 1949 Communist victory, what were the Chinese people subject to?

Government control of agricultural land to assure production and distribution of enough food, increasing manufacturing...

(27) What does South Asia's agriculture depend on yearly?

Climate (monsoon rains)

(28) Why are development prospects limited in sub-Saharan Africa?

Contains the world's highest percentage of people living in poverty and suffering from poor health and low education levels, poor economic conditions, political problems, & the dramatic imbalance between the number of inhabitants and the capacity of the land to feed the population.

(29) Rostow's development model
What does it begin with?

A model of economic growth.
Process begins when an elite group initiates innovative economic activities.

(30) International Trade Approach

Approach in which a country can develop economically by concentrating scarce resources on expansion of distinctive local industries.

(31) How has Saudi Arabia successfully employed the international trade approach?

Used petroleum revenues to finance large-scale projects with factories that compete on world markets with the help of government subsidies.

(32) In the 21st century what economic changes has China seen?

Dramatic manufacturing increase. Became the world's largest market for consumer products. Partnership with Wal-Mart pushes down prices for consumer goods throughout the world.

(33) Self-sufficiency approach

A country should spread investment as equally as possible across all sectors of its economy and in all regions. The benefits of development are shared throughout the country & Incomes in the countryside keep in pace with those in the city, and reducing poverty takes precedence over encouraging a few people to be wealthy consumers.

(33) Contrast the self-sufficiency approach with the international trade approach.

Under the self-sufficiency approach, businesses were isolated from competition with large international competitions. Under the international trade approach, a country can develop economically by concentrating scarce resources on expansion of its distinctive local industries.

(34) What is the main benefit of the self-sufficiency approach?

Equal and balanced spreading of investment across all sectors of its economy and in all regions.

(35) What are traditional barriers to international investment?

...

(36) In recent years, which model has India embraced?

international trade

(37) Indicators of global gender equality

High GDI & GEM

(38) Characteristics of the Fair Trade Movement.

Products are made and traded according to standards that protect workers and small businesses in LDCs.

(39) What is the biggest problem LDCs face in financing development?

...

(40) What do the critics say are some of the effects of the Structural Adjustment Program for refinancing loans?

Cuts in health, education, and social services that benefit the poor, higher unemployment, loss of jobs in state enterprises and the civil service, and less support for those most in need, such as poor pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and elderly people.

(41) In what country is there gender inequality?

The UN has not found a single country in the world where women are treated as well as men.

(42) Which is a more meaningful measure of development: GDP per capita or GNP? Why?

...

(43) Is the availability of energy and other resources important in order to increase the level of development of a country?

...

(44) Does raising the GDP of a country mean higher standards of living?

Yes, the higher the per capita GDP, the greater the potential for ensuring that all citizens enjoy a confortable life.

(45) HDI of North America

0.95

(45) HDI of Europe

0.93

(45) HDI of Russia

0.73

(45) HDI of Japan

0.96

(45) HDI of Oceania

0.90

(45) HDI of Latin America

0.82

(45) HDI of East Asia

0.77

(45) HDI of Southwest Asia and North Africa

0.74

(45) HDI of Southeast Asia

0.73

(45) HDI of Central Asia

0.70

(45) HDI of South Asia

0.61

(45) HDI of sub-Saharan Africa

0.51

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