Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
The constitutional amendment passed after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
The constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of laws."
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1870 to extend suffrage to African Americans.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, federal registrars were sent to Southern states and counties that had long histories of discrimination; as a result, hundreds of thousands of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment.
All persons having the right to vote
To guarantee the right to vote
To take the right to vote away
Small taxes, levied on the right to vote, that often fell due on a of year when poor African American sharecroppers had the lease cash on hand. This method was used by most southern states to exclude African Americans from voting registers. Poll taxes were declared void by the Twenty-fourth Amendment in 1964.
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote
One of the means used to discourage, One of the means used to discourage African-American voting that permitted political parties in the heavily Democratic South to exclude African Americans from primary elections, thus depriving them of a voice in the real contests. The Supreme Court declared White primaries unconstitutional in 1944.
The constitutional amendment passed in 1964 that declared poll taxes void.
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
The issue raised when women are paid less than men for working jobs requiring comparable skill.
Americans with Disabilities Act
A law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment.
A policy designed to give special attention to or compensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged group.
A United States law enacted on June 23, 1972 that states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance."
Full Faith and Credit Clause
A clause in Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.
Defense of Marriage Act
Federal statute declaring marriage to be a "legal union of one man and one woman," denying gay couples many of the civil advantages of marriage, and also relieving states of the obligation to grant reciprocity, or "full faith and credit," to marriages performed in another state.
The charge that an affirmative action program discriminates against those who do not have minority status.