Chapter 11: Prefixes/Tests

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angi/o

vessel

aort/o

aorta

arter/o, arteri/o

artery

ather/o

yellowish plaquw, fatty substance

atri/o

atrium

brachi/o

arm

cardi/o

heart

cholesterol/o

cholesterol

coron/o

heart

cyan/o

blue

myx/o

mucus

ox/o

oxygen

pericardi/o

pericardium

phleb/o

vein

rrhythm/o

rhythm

sphygm/o

pulse

steth/o

chest

thromb/o

clot

valvul/o, valv/o

valve

vas/o

vessel

vascul/o

vessel

ven/o, ven/i

vein

ventricul/o

ventricle, lower heart chamber

BNP test

measurement of brain natriuretic peptide in the blood. elevated in patients with heart failure.

cardiac biomarkers

chemicals measured in the blood as evidence of a heart attack. damaged heart muscle releases chemicals into the bloodstream. the substances tested for are troponin-I and troponin-T

lipid tests (lipid profile)

measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a blood sample

saturated fats

animal origin, such as milk, butter, and meats; increase blood cholesterol

polyunsaturated fats

vegetable origin, such as corn and safflower oil; decrease blood cholesterol

lipoprotein electrophoresis

lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measured in a blood sample

angiography

x ray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material

CTA

computed tomography angiography; 3-D x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography

DSA

digital subtraction angiography; electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD

doppler ultrasound studies

sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels

ECHO

echocardiography; echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart

TEE

transesophageal echocardiography; trasducer is placed in the esophagus and provides ultrasound and doppler information

PET scan

positron emission tomography scan; images show blood flow and myocaridal function following uptake of radioactive glucose

technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan

Technectium Tc 99m sestamibi injected iintravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning

thallium 201 scan

concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give information about blood supply to the heart muscle

cardiac MRI

images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field

cardiac catheterization

thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery

ECG/EKG

electrocardiography; recording of electricity flowing through the heart

Holter monitoring

an ECG device is worn during a 24 hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias

stress test

exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion (stress)

catheter ablation

brief dellivery of radiofrequency or cryosurgery to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias

CABG

coronary artery bypass grafting; arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages

defibrillation

brief discharge of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias (v-fib)

endarterectomy

surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery

extracorporeal circulation

heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired

heart transplantation

a donor heart is transferred to a recipient

PCI

percutaneous coronary intervention

thrombolytic therapy

drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patients with coronary thrombosis

AAA

abdominal aortic aneurysm

ACE inhibitor

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

ACLS

advanced cardiac life support; CPR plus drugs and defibrillation

ACS

acute coronary syndrome

ADP

adenosine diphosphate

AED

automatic external defibrillator

AF, a-fib

atrial fibrillation

AICD

automatic inmplantable cardioverter-defibrillator

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

ARVD

arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

AS

aortic stenosis

AV, A-V

atrioventricular

ASD

atrial septum defect

AVR

aortic valve replacement

BBB

bundle branch block

BP

blood pressure

CAD

coronary artery disease

CCU

coronary care unit

Cath

catheterization

CHF

congestive heart failure

CK

creatine kinase; released into the bloodstream after injury to heart or skeletal muscle

CoA

coarctation of the aorta

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CRT

cardiac resynchronization therapy; biventricular pacing

CTNI

cardiac troponin-I and cardiac troponin-T; released into the bloodstream after myocardial injury

CV

cardiovascular

DES

drug-eluting stent

DSA

digital subtraction angiography

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

ECMO

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

EF

ejection fraction

EPS

electrophysiology study

ETT

exercise tolerance test

ETT-MIBI

exercise tolerance test combined with a radioactive tracer scan

HDL

high density lipoprotein; high blood levels are associated with lower incidence of coronary artery disease

HTN

hypertension

IABP

intra-aortic ballon pump; used to support patients in cardiogenic shock

ICD

implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

LAD

left anterior descending (coronary artery)

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

LMWH

low molecular weight heparin

LV

left ventricle

LVAD

left ventricular hypertrophy

MI

myocardial infarction

MR

mitral regurgitation

MUGA

multiple gated acquisition scan

MVP

mitral valve prolapse

NSR

normal sinus rhythm

NSTEMI

non-ST elevation myocardial infarction

PAC

premature atrial contraction

PAD

peripheral arterial disease

PCI

percutaneous coronary intervention

PDA

patent ductus arteriosus; posterior descending artery

PVC

premature ventricular contraction

SA node

sinoatrial node

SCD

sudden cardiac death

SOB

shortness of breath

SPECT

single photon emission computed tomography

SSCP

substernal chest pain

STEMI

ST-elevation myocardial infarction

SVT

supraventricular tachycardia

Tc

technetium

TGA

transposition of the great arteries

tPA

tissue-type plasminogen activator; a drug used to prevent thrombosis

UA

unstable angina; chest pain at rest or of increased frequency

VF

ventricular fibrillation

VSD

ventricular septal defect

VT

ventricular tachycardia

WPW

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; an abnormal ECG pattern often associated with paroxysmal tachycardia

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