King of the Franks from 768-814, he united much of France, Germany and northern Italy in one Frankish empire; crowned Emperor of the Roman people by the pope in 800.
Territories in central Italy controlled by the pope from 756-1870.
Title of nobility; in Charlemagne's empire, chosen officials who ruled parts of the empire in his name.
The family lineage of Charlemagne and his ancestors
In medieval Europe, nobles who were members of a lord's heavily armored cavalry.
A grant of land from a lord to a vassal.
In medieval Europe, a person granted land from a lord in return for services.
A political and social system based on the granting of land in exchange for loyalty, military assistance, and other services.
The loyalty owed by a vassal to his feudal lord.
An economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors.
Peasants who were legally bound to their lord's land.
Alfred the Great
King of Wessex from 871 to 899; he defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo-Saxon England under his control. He compiled a code of laws and promoted learning.
William the Conqueror
(1027-1087) King of England from 1060 to 1087; he was a powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England.
The written record of English landowners and their property made by order of William the Conqueror in 1085-1086
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Queen of France and England; she was one of the most powerful women in Europe during the middle ages (1122-1204)
(1215) A charter agreed to by King John of England that granted nobles certain rights and restricted the king's powers.
The governing body of England.
King of France from 987 to 996; elected by Frankish nobles to succeed King Louis V, he founded the Capetian dynasty, which ruled France for 300 years.
Otto the great
(912-973) King of Germany (936-973) and Holy Roman Emperor (962-973); he defeated the Magyar army, which ended the Magyar raids in the mid-900s.
The effort of Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, occurring between the 1100s and 1492.
Devotion to one's religion.
Papal term in office.
Pope Gregory VII
(1020-1085) Roman Catholic pope; his assertion of church power to appoint bishops led him into conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who claimed the powers for himself. Gregory excommunicated Henry, who relented.
King of France from 1589 to 1610; he issued the Edict of Nantes (1598), which permitted Protestant worship, in order to restore peace to France.
(395-1453) The name historians give to the Eastern Roman Empire; it refers to Byzantium, the name of the capital city before it was changed to Constantinople.
(483-565) Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565; he reunited the parts of the Roman Empire, simplified Roman laws with Justinian's Code, and ordered Hagia Sophia built.
(died 548) Byzantine empress; she was married to Justinian and exerted a great influence over him and over the political and religious events of the empire.
A painting or carving of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or a saint.
The church that followed the Eastern traditions of Christianity as opposed ot the Western traditions.
(466-511) King of the Franks from 481 to 511; he established the kingdom of the Franks in the late 400s; according to legend, his victories convinced him to convert to Christianity.
Term historians use to denote the society concentrated in Western Europe, which developed in the Middle Ages in which people were linked by common customs and the Christian religion.
Gregory the Great
(540-604) Roman Catholic pope from 590 to 604; he restored monastic discipline and was zealous in propagating Christianity.
A collection of rules or guidelines for monks and monasteries; named for Benedict of Nursia; widely used in Europe in the Middle Ages
The elected head of a monastery