Chapter 11 Black Book

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Yugoslavia

Civil war broke out in Yugoslavia. As the Communist regime fell, Yugoslavia was divided up into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia. Fighting soon broke out inside these areas, as Serbs attempted to gain control of the entire territory. The Serbs instituted a policy of "ethnic" cleansing, whose goal was to force non-Serbs out of all areas that the Serbs conquered.

David Lloyd George

He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Georges Clemenceau

French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)

Treaty of Versaille

treaty ending WWI, forced Germany to take blame for war and forced it to limit military and return land to France and Russia

mandate

a territory surrendered by Turkey or Germany after World War I and put under the tutelage of some other European power until they are able to stand by themselves

Paris Peace Conference

The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Lloyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.

James Joyce

influential Irish writer noted for his many innovations (such as stream of consciousness writing) (1882-1941)

T.S. Eliot

wrote "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," "The Waste Land" and "The Hollow Men;" British WWI poet, playwright, and literary critic

Benito Mussolini

Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)

Sinn Fein Party

Irish group that was uprising against the British for Independence. They later declared independence from Britain; Irish nationalist party that sought Home Rule and independence

Mein Kampf

'My Struggle' by Hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession

Weimar Republic

The new German republic the in 1921 owed 33 billion annually to the allied reparations commission. In order to recover from its severe economic issues the annual fees were reduced each year depending on the level of German economic prosperity and Germany received large loans each year from the United States.

Polish Corridor

Versailles gave Poland the territory of Poznania and much of Pomeriania. Led to the Baltic Sea and devided East Prussia from the rest of Germany.

Gustav Stresemann

Assumed leadership of Germany in August 1923. He called off passive resistance in the Ruhr and in October agreed in principle to pay preparations but ask for a re-examination of Germany's ability to pay.

Stanley Baldwin

was the leader of the Conservatives in Britain. He had an uncompromising spirit on social issues, and his international and domestic programs were about peace; destroyed the liberal party.

Black-shirted Fascists

Mussolini's group who helped magnify the problems of society and came into power. They killed their leftist opponents. The constitutional monarch asked Mussolini to form a new government. Fascists started to make extreme decisions, such as authoritarian government, and killing opponents and finally, banning all parties except the Fascists; members of a political party in Italy who preached that the nation and the race were more important then the individual; wore distinguishable shirts

Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht

German leftists and communists and were murdered because of the party they were for; leaders of the German Communists

Jozef Pilsudski

polish leader who curtailed his country's experiment in democracy when he took power in 1926 and ruled till his death; He is considered largely responsible for Poland regaining its independence in 1918.

Five-Power Naval Treaty

(1922) treaty resulting from the Washington Armaments Conference that limited to a specific ratio the carrier and battleship tonnage of each nation. It created a moratorium for 10 years, during which no battleships would be built. The countries agreed to refrain from further fortification of their Pacific Possessions. The five countries were: US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy

Home Rule

self-government in local matters by a city or county that is part of a national government

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