AP Psychology Human Development

63 terms by empeab2012

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Accommodate

oblige or help someone; adjust or bring into harmony; adapt; make enough space for; ADJ. accommodative; CF. accomodating: helpful and obliging

Adolescence

The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.

Alzheimer's Disease

an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning

Asperger Syndrome

a childhood disorder at the high-functioning end of the autistic spectrum; characterized by impaired social interest and skills and restricted interests

Assimilate

absorb; take (food) into the body and digest it; understand (knowledge) completely and be able to use properly; cause to become homogeneous (the people of a country or race in the wasy of behaving or thinking)

Attachment

an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation

Authoritarian Parents

parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority

Authoritative Parents

parents who set high but realistic and reasonable standards, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence

Autism

a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind

Basic Trust

according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

Brain Development in Infants

Brain development unfolds through maturation—a biologically programmed growth process. In humans, at birth, the brain is immature, but as the child matures, neural networks grow increasingly more complex. As they do, the infant's capabilities surge...

Characteristics of Emerging Adults

1. identity exploration
2. a stage of instability
3. self focused
4. feelings of transition
5. stage of possibilities

Cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Concrete Operational Stage

Piagets Theory- the stage of cognitive development during which children gain mental opperations to think logically

Conception

union of an ovum and sperm, resulting in the beginning of a pregnancy

Conservation

the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

Continuity and Stages

Is development a gradual, continuous process like riding an escalator, or does it proceed through a sequence of separate stages, like climbing rungs on a ladder

Critical Period

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

Cross Sectional Studies

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

Crystalized Intelligence

type of intelligence which includes accumulated knowledge and verbal skills, that INCREASES WITH AGE

Dementia

a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking, and judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes

Deprived Attachment

no attachment, kids are withdrawn, frightened, unable to develop speech (usually abusive parents)
ex: charles manson

Developmental Psychologists

a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

Egocentric

The thinking in the preoperational stage of cognitive development where children believe everyone sees the world fro the same perspective as he or she does.

Embryo

the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

Erik Erikson

neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant

Fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

Fluid Intellegence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

Formal Operational in Adolecence

The brain is not fully developed thus cannot make just actions without knowing about consequences

Formal Operational Stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

Habituation

decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

Harry Harlow's Monkey Experiment

the monkeys could chose between 2 artificial mothers: one was foam covered in terry cloth, the other was a hard metal cage but it held a bottle attached for feeding. The monkey would only leave the terrycloth mother when they got too hungry, and quickly returned to that mother.

Identity and Adolescence

Ones sense of self, according to Erikson an adolescents task is to solidify a sense of self by testing adn integrating various roles

Imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

Insecure Attachment

A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return

Jean Piaget

Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation

Lawrence Kohlberg

moral development; presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?

Longitudinal Study

research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

Maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

Memory in Infants

Rovee-Collier study
tied a string to infant's foot connected to something that moves
first measure baseline kicking
then learning phase: attach to mobile, moves when infant kicks, at first, infant is still and randomly moves, then get into it and they learn they are making it move and they start kicking a lot
memory test: come back after a period of time (48 hrs - 2 weeks) attach to mobile and they immediately kick -- infant remembers the event and how to make it move
~6 weeks later: come back and attach - they are back at baseline
then give infant a memory cue and come back the next day and they kick a lot again

Menarche

the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman

Menopause

the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

Motor Development in Infants

Motor Development milestones are the same throughout the world but babies reach them at differnt ages.

Object Perminance

The Piagetian term for one of an infant's most important accomplishments: understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard or touched

Permissive parents

Parenting style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to make most decisions and control their own behavior.

Postconventional Morality

third level of kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the person's behavior is governed by moral principles that have been decided on by the individual and that may be in disagreement with accepted social norms

Preconventional Morality

first level of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in which the child's behavior is governed by the consequences of the behavior

Primary Sex Characteristics

the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible

Prospective Memory

remembering to do things in the future

Puberty

period when secondary sex characteristics develop and the ability to reproduce sexually begins

Rooting Reflex

reflex consisting of head-turning and sucking movements elicited in a normal infant by gently stroking the side of the mouth of cheek

Schemas

conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world

Secure Attachment

Infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened

Secondary Sex Characteristics

nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair

Self Concept

the mental picture people have of themselves; their opinion about themselves

Sensorimotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

Social Clock

the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

Stranger Anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

Stablility and Change

A child needs an enviroment that is stable and will adapt to change

Teratogens

agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

Theory of Mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

Zygotes

the fertilized egg-> enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

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