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Respiration

What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?

catabolic pathways

Which of the following statements describes NAD+?

NAD+ is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

Where does glycolysis takes place?

cytosol

The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by

substrate-level phosphorylation.

The oxygen consumed during cellular respiration is involved directly in which process or event?

accepting electrons at the end of the electron transport chain

Which process in eukaryotic cells will proceed normally whether oxygen (O2) is present or absent?

glycolysis

During glycolysis, when glucose is catabolized to pyruvate, most of the energy of glucose is

retained in the pyruvate.

In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis?

NADH and pyruvate

In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate

2 molecules of ATP are used and 4 molecules of ATP are produced.

A molecule that is phosphorylated

has an increased chemical reactivity; it is primed to do cellular work.

In the presence of oxygen, the three-carbon compound pyruvate can be catabolized in the citric acid cycle. First, however, the pyruvate 1) loses a carbon, which is given off as a molecule of CO2, 2) is oxidized to form a two-carbon compound called acetate, and 3) is bonded to coenzyme A. These three steps result in the formation of:

acetyl CoA, NADH, H+, and CO2.

Which of the following intermediary metabolites enters the citric acid cycle and is formed, in part, by the removal of a carbon (CO2) from one molecule of pyruvate?

acetyl CoA

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle

Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which of the following?

chemiosmotic phosphorylation

During aerobic respiration, electrons travel downhill in which sequence?

food>NADH>electron transport chain>oxygen

Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located?

mitochondrial inner membrane

During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain at the lowest energy level?

FADH2

The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to

act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.

Inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway?

citric acid cycle>NADH>electron transport chain>oxygen

In chemiosmotic phosphorylation, what is the most direct source of energy that is used to convert ADP + Pi to ATP?

energy released from movement of protons through ATP synthase

Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location?

mitochondrial intermembrane space

The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is

the difference in H+ concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space, the result is the

creation of a proton gradient.

Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondrion?

inner membrane

Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water?

oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)

Approximately what percentage of the energy of glucose (C6H12O6) is transferred to storage in ATP as a result of the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and water in cellular respiration?

40%

In liver cells, the inner mitochondrial membranes are about 5 X the area of the outer mitochondrial membranes, and about 17 X that of the cell's plasma membrane. What purpose must this serve?

It increases the surface for oxidative phosphoryation.

Which of the following normally occurs whether or not oxygen (O2) is present?

glycolysis

Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation?

glycolysis

The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following?

substrate-level phosphorylation

In the absence of oxygen, yeast cells can obtain energy by fermentation, resulting in the production of

ATP, CO2, and ethanol (ethyl alcohol).

One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to

oxidize NADH to NAD+.

When muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration, they become fatigued and painful. This is now known to be caused by

increase in potassium ions.

In vertebrate animals, brown fat tissue's color is due to abundant mitochondria. White fat tissue, on the other hand, is specialized for fat storage and contains relatively few mitochondria. Brown fat cells have a specialized protein that dissipates the proton-motive force across the mitochondrial membranes. Which of the following might be the function of the brown fat tissue?

to regulate temperature by converting energy from NADH oxidation to heat

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